Table of Contents
ISRN Neurology
Volume 2012, Article ID 642345, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/642345
Review Article

Glioblastoma Multiforme: Novel Therapeutic Approaches

1Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia (IBB) and Departamento de Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
2Amrita Therapeutics Ltd., S. G. Highway, Thaltej, Ahmedabad 380 054, India
3Laboratory of Immunology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Nampally, Hyderabad 500 001, India
4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, 835 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA

Received 29 August 2011; Accepted 20 October 2011

Academic Editor: R. Yamanaka

Copyright © 2012 Arsenio M. Fialho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The current therapy for glioblastoma multiforme involves total surgical resection followed by combination of radiation therapy and temozolomide. Unfortunately, the efficacy for such current therapy is limited, and newer approaches are sorely needed to treat this deadly disease. We have recently described the isolation of bacterial proteins and peptides with anticancer activity. In phase I human clinical trials, one such peptide, p28, derived from a bacterial protein azurin, showed partial and complete regression of tumors in several patients among 15 advanced-stage cancer patients with refractory metastatic tumors where the tumors were no longer responsive to current conventional drugs. An azurin-like protein called Laz derived from Neisseria meningitides demonstrates efficient entry and high cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma cells. Laz differs from azurin in having an additional 39-amino-acid peptide called an H.8 epitope, which allows entry and high cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma cells. Since p28 has been shown to have very little toxicity and high anti-tumor activity in advanced-stage cancer patients, it will be worthwhile to explore the use of H.8-p28, H.8-azurin, and Laz in toxicity studies and glioblastoma therapy in preclinical and human clinical trials.