Table of Contents
ISRN Civil Engineering
Volume 2012, Article ID 678329, 16 pages
Research Article

Optimum Design of Pile Foundation by Automatic Grouping Genetic Algorithms

1Goldwind Science & Technology Company Ltd, Beijing 100176, China
2State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
3Xiamen Construction and Administration Bureau, Xiamen 361003, China

Received 11 July 2012; Accepted 22 August 2012

Academic Editors: P. J. S. Cruz and I. Smith

Copyright © 2012 Xiaofeng Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper studies the optimum conceptual design of pile foundations at the initial design stage. A modular method is proposed, which divides the foundation into modules and each module is identified by its characteristics of pile length, diameter, number and layout. Modules with the same characteristics may be packed and represented by a design variable. A minimum-cost optimization model with multiple design constraints based on Chinese code and a cardinality constraint is built to achieve the concurrent optimization of pile size and layout. The model is solved by the improved automatic grouping genetic algorithms to obtain the design with optimal variables and optimal variable grouping. A practical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.