Table of Contents
ISRN Oncology
Volume 2012, Article ID 687298, 6 pages
Research Article

Comparing Lung Cancer Risks in Sweden, USA, and Japan

1Hallberg Independent Research, Brattforsgatan 3, 123 50 Farsta, Sweden
2The Experimental Dermatology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden

Received 16 September 2011; Accepted 3 November 2011

Academic Editors: I. Belyaev and A. Lisi

Copyright © 2012 Örjan Hallberg and Olle Johansson. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To develop a conceptual model for lung cancer rates to describe and quantify observed differences between Sweden and USA contra Japan. Method. A two-parameter lognormal distribution was used to describe the lung cancer rates over time after a 1-year period of smoking. Based on that risk function in combination with smoking prevalence, the calculated age-standardized rates were adjusted to fit reported data from Japan, Sweden, and the USA by parameter variation. Results. The risk of lung cancer is less in Japan than in Sweden and in the USA at the same smoking prevalence and intensity. Calculated age-specific rates did also fit well to reported rates without further parameter adjustments. Conclusions. This new type of cancer model appears to have high degree of predictive value. It is recommended that data from more countries are studied to identify important life-style factors related to lung cancer.