Table of Contents
ISRN Nanotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 693485, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/693485
Review Article

The Separation Power of Nanotubes in Membranes: A Review

Laboratory for Applied Physical Chemistry and Environmental Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, W. de Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven, Belgium

Received 20 March 2012; Accepted 1 May 2012

Academic Editors: W.-J. Chang, B. Coasne, Y. Jin, Y. A. Koksharov, and Y. Li

Copyright © 2012 Bart Van der Bruggen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Padeletti and P. Fermo, “How the masters in Umbria, Italy, generated and used nanoparticles in art fabrication during the renaissance period,” Applied Physics A, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 515–525, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Wilcoxon, “Optical absorption properties of dispersed gold and silver alloy nanoparticles,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 113, no. 9, pp. 2647–2656, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. Van der Bruggen, J. Haifeng, and J. Kim, “Development of nanofiltration membranes enhanced by deposited and integrated nanoparticles in view of fouling mitigation,” in Proceedings of the 7th Ibero-American Conference on Membrane Science and Technology (CITEM '10), pp. 17–18, Oral presentation, Book of Abstracts, Sintra, Portugal, April 2010.
  4. V. J. Morris, “Emerging roles of engineered nanomaterials in the food industry,” Trends in Biotechnology, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. H. She, W. M. Gao, Z. Peng, P. D. Hodgson, and L. X. Kong, “Micro- and nano-characterization of membrane materials,” Journal of the Chinese Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 313–320, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. R. Bowen and T. A. Doneva, “Atomic force microscopy studies of nanofiltration membranes: surface morphology, pore size distribution and adhesion,” Desalination, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 163–172, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. S. Kotrappanavar, A. A. Hussain, M. E. E. Abashar, I. S. Al-Mutaz, T. M. Aminabhavi, and M. N. Nadagouda, “Prediction of physical properties of nanofiltration membranes for neutral and charged solutes,” Desalination, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. C. Mueller, B. Van der Bruggen, V. Keuter et al., “Nanofiltration and nanostructured membranes-should they be considered nanotechnology or not?” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 211-212, pp. 275–280, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. ISO, Nanotechnologies-Vocabulary, Core Terms, International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.
  10. M. Chakraborty, S. Jain, and V. Rani, “Nanotechnology: emerging tool for diagnostics and therapeutics,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 165, no. 5-6, pp. 1178–1187, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. H. C. Huang, S. Barua, G. Sharma, S. K. Dey, and K. Rege, “Inorganic nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy,” Journal of Controlled Release, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Parveen, R. Misra, and S. K. Sahoo, “Nanoparticles: a boon to drug delivery, therapeutics, diagnostics and imaging,” Nanomedicine, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 147–166, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. da Costa, P. P. Zamora, and A. J. G. Zarbin, “Novel TiO2/C nanocomposites: synthesis, characterization, and application as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 368, no. 1, pp. 121–127, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. T.-J. Whang, M.-T. Hsieh, and H.-H. Chen, “Visible-light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with laser-induced Ag/ZnO nanoparticles,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 258, no. 7, pp. 2796–2801, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. H. P. Li, W. Zheng, S. Y. Huang, and W. Pan, “Enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalysis of surface nitrided electrospun TiO2 nanofibers,” Nanoscale, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 801–806, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  16. R. D. Noble, “Perspectives on mixed matrix membranes,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 378, no. 1-2, pp. 393–397, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. R. Wiesner and J. Y. Bottero, “A risk forecasting process for nanostructured materials, and nanomanufacturing,” Comptes Rendus Physique, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 659–668, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  18. W. Aust, N. Daum, M. Bloching et al., “Risk of nanoparticles?” Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 162–166, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. N. Moore, “Do nanoparticles present ecotoxicological risks for the health of the aquatic environment?” Environment International, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 967–976, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Tiede, M. Hassellöv, E. Breitbarth, Q. Chaudhry, and A. B. A. Boxall, “Considerations for environmental fate and ecotoxicity testing to support environmental risk assessments for engineered nanoparticles,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1216, no. 3, pp. 503–509, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Kim and B. Van Der Bruggen, “The use of nanoparticles in polymeric and ceramic membrane structures: review of manufacturing procedures and performance improvement for water treatment,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 158, no. 7, pp. 2335–2349, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Sotto, A. Boromand, S. Balta, J. Kim, and B. Van Der Bruggen, “Doping of polyethersulfone nanofiltration membranes: antifouling effect observed at ultralow concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 28, pp. 10311–10320, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. I. Soroko and A. Livingston, “Impact of TiO2 nanoparticles on morphology and performance of crosslinked polyimide organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) membranes,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 343, no. 1-2, pp. 189–198, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J.-F. Li, Z. L. Xu, H. Yang, L. Y. Yu, and M. Liu, “Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface morphology and performance of microporous PES membrane,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 255, no. 9, pp. 4725–4732, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Yang, H. Zhang, P. Wang, Q. Zheng, and J. Li, “The influence of nano-sized TiO2 fillers on the morphologies and properties of PSF UF membrane,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 288, no. 1-2, pp. 231–238, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Balta, A. Sotto, J. Kim, P. Luis, L. Benea, and B. Van der Bruggen, “A new vision on membrane enhancement with nanoparticles: the alternative of ZnO,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 389, pp. 155–161, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  27. L. Yan, S. Hong, M. L. Li, and Y. S. Li, “Application of the Al2O3-PVDF nanocomposite tubular ultrafiltration (UF) membrane for oily wastewater treatment and its antifouling research,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 347–352, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. L. Yu, W. X. Shi, Y. Lu, and J. X. Yang, “Characterization and anti-fouling performance of nano-Al2O3/PVDF membrane for Songhua River raw water filtration,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 1892–1897, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  29. K. Vanherck, I. Vankelecom, and T. Verbiest, “Improving fluxes of polyimide membranes containing gold nanoparticles by photothermal heating,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 373, no. 1-2, pp. 5–13, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Xu and D. Bhattacharyya, “Membrane-based bimetallic nanoparticles for environmental remediation: synthesis and reactive properties,” Environmental Progress, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 358–366, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. A. P. Tanaka, M. A. L. Tanco, T. Nagase et al., “Fabrication of hydrogen-permeable composite membranes packed with palladium nanoparticles,” Advanced Materials, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 630–632, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. M. Pendergast and E. M. V. Hoek, “A review of water treatment membrane nanotechnologies,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1946–1971, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. B. Haley and E. Frenkel, “Nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer treatment,” Urologic Oncology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 57–64, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Hiura, J. W. Bennett, H. F. Ghaemi, and T. Thio, “Electrical conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes,” Nature, vol. 382, no. 6586, pp. 54–56, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. Sinha, J. Ma, and J. T. W. Yeow, “Carbon nanotube-based sensors,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 573–590, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. O. K. Varghese, P. D. Kichambre, D. Gong, K. G. Ong, E. C. Dickey, and C. A. Grimes, “Gas sensing characteristics of multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 32–41, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. O. K. Varghese, D. Gong, M. Paulose, K. G. Ong, and C. A. Grimes, “Hydrogen sensing using titania nanotubes,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 93, no. 1–3, pp. 338–344, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Peng and K. Cho, “Ab initio study of doped carbon nanotube sensors,” Nano Letters, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 513–517, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Z. Zanolli, R. Leghrib, A. Felten, J. J. Pireaux, E. Llobet, and J. C. Charlier, “Gas sensing with au-decorated carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 4592–4599, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Bernholc, D. Brenner, M. Buongiorno Nardelli, V. Meunier, and C. Roland, “Mechanical and electrical properties of nanotubes,” Annual Review of Materials Science, vol. 32, pp. 347–375, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. N. Coleman, U. Khan, W. J. Blau, and Y. K. Gun'ko, “Small but strong: a review of the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube-polymer composites,” Carbon, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1624–1652, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Oliver, J. Bult, Q. V. Le, A. L. Mbaruku, and J. Schwartz, “Mechanical properties of non-functionalized multiwall nanotube reinforced polycarbonate at 77 K,” Nanotechnology, vol. 19, no. 50, Article ID 505702, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Hone, “Carbon nanotubes: thermal properties,” in Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  44. R. Che, L. M. Peng, X. Duan, Q. Chen, and X. Liang, “Microwave Absorption Enhancement and Complex Permittivity and Permeability of Fe Encapsulated within Carbon Nanotubes,” Advanced Materials, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 401–405, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Wadhawan, D. Garrett, and J. M. Perez, “Nanoparticle-assisted microwave absorption by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 83, no. 13, pp. 2683–2685, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. C. Che, C. Y. Zhi, C. Y. Liang, and X. G. Zhou, “Fabrication and microwave absorption of carbon nanotubes CoFe 2O4 spinel nanocomposite,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, no. 3, Article ID 033105, pp. 1–3, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. Iijima, “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon,” Nature, vol. 354, no. 6348, pp. 56–58, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. Levy, A. G. Leyva, H. E. Troiani, and R. D. Sánchez, “Nanotubes of rare-earth manganese oxide,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 83, no. 25, pp. 5247–5249, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. Pan, L. Pu, Y. Shi et al., “Synthesis of polyaniline nanotubes with a reactive template of manganese oxide,” Advanced Materials, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 461–464, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. W. Lee, J. Kim, S. Chen, P. T. Hammond, and Y. Shao-Horn, “Carbon nanotube/manganese oxide ultrathin film electrodes for electrochemical capacitors,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 3889–3896, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. E. Spahr, P. Bitterli, R. Nesper, M. Müller, F. Krumeich, and H. U. Nissen, “Redox-active nanotubes of vanadium oxide,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1263–1265, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. F. Krumeich, H. J. Muhr, M. Niederberger, F. Bieri, B. Schnyder, and R. Nesper, “Morphology and topochemical reactions of novel vanadium oxide nanotubes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 121, no. 36, pp. 8324–8331, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Niederberger, H. J. Muhr, F. Krumeich, F. Bieri, D. Günther, and R. Nesper, “Low-cost synthesis of vanadium oxide nanotubes via two novel non-alkoxide routes,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1995–2000, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. L. Mai, W. Chen, Q. Xu, Q. Zhu, C. Han, and J. Peng, “Cost-saving synthesis of vanadium oxide nanotubes,” Solid State Communications, vol. 126, no. 10, pp. 541–543, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. Yella, E. Mugnaioli, M. Panthöfer, H. A. Therese, U. Kolb, and W. Tremel, “Bismuth-catalyzed growth of SnS2 nanotubes and their stability,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 48, no. 35, pp. 6426–6430, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Nath, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Simple synthesis of MoS2 and WS2 nanotubes,” Advanced Materials, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 283–286, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. S. I. Na, S. S. Kim, W. K. Hong et al., “Fabrication of TiO2 nanotubes by using electrodeposited ZnO nanorod template and their application to hybrid solar cells,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 2560–2566, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. X. Zhao, C. M. Hayner, and H. H. Kung, “Self-assembled lithium manganese oxide nanoparticles on carbon nanotube or graphene as high-performance cathode material for lithium-ion batteries,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 43, pp. 17297–17303, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. R. L. D. Whitby, W. K. Hsu, P. K. Fearon et al., “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with tungsten disulfide,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 2209–2217, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Brorson, T. W. Hansen, and C. J. H. Jacobsen, “Rhenium(IV) sulfide nanotubes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 39, pp. 11582–11583, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. Aqel, K. M. M. A. El-Nour, R. A. A. Ammar, and A. Al-Warthan, “Carbon nanotubes, science and technology part (I) structure, synthesis and characterisation,” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. K. Geim and P. Kim, “Carbon wonderland,” Scientific American, vol. 298, no. 4, pp. 90–97, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. X. Wang, Q. Li, J. Xie et al., “Fabrication of ultralong and electrically uniform single-walled carbon nanotubes on clean substrates,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 3137–3141, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. G. Nasibulin, P. V. Pikhitsa, H. Jiang et al., “A novel hybrid carbon material,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 156–161, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. H. Y. He and B. C. Pan, “Electronic structures and Raman features of a carbon nanobud,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 49, pp. 20822–20826, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. X. Zhu and H. Su, “Magnetism in hybrid carbon nanostructures: nanobuds,” Physical Review B, vol. 79, no. 16, Article ID 165401, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Wang and C. M. Li, “Magnetic properties of all-carbon graphene-fullerene nanobuds,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 13, no. 13, pp. 5945–5951, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. X. J. Wu and X. C. Zeng, “Periodic graphene nanobuds,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 250–256, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. L. Liu, C. S. Jayanthi, and S. Y. Wu, “Structural and electronic properties of a carbon nanotorus: effects of delocalized and localized deformations,” Physical Review B, vol. 64, no. 3, Article ID 033412, pp. 0334121–0334124, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. P. Liu and N. Xu, “Magnetic response of chiral carbon nanotori: the dependence of torus radius,” Physica B, vol. 403, no. 17, pp. 2884–2887, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. Sun, “Deformation, vibration, buckling of continuum nanotorus,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2010, Article ID 480628, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. C. A. Kuntscher, A. Abouelsayed, A. Botos, A. Pekker, and K. Kamaras, “Pressure studies on fullerene peapods,” Physica Status Solidi B, vol. 248, no. 11, pp. 2732–2735, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  73. A. Suzuki, T. Oku, and K. Kikuchi, “Electronic structure and magnetic properties of 14N@C 60 within single-walled carbon nanotube as peapods,” Physica B, vol. 405, no. 10, pp. 2418–2422, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. T. Yanagisawa, T. Hayashi, Y. A. Kim, Y. Fukai, and M. Endo, “Structure and basic properties of cup-stacked type carbon nanofiber,” Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals Science and Technology A, vol. 387, no. 2, pp. 391–]/167-[395]/171, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. Inagaki, K. Kaneko, and T. Nishizawa, “Nanocarbons—recent research in Japan,” Carbon, vol. 42, no. 8-9, pp. 1401–1417, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. Murmu, S. Adhikari, and C. Y. Wang, “Torsional vibration of carbon nanotube-buckyball systems based on nonlocal elasticity theory,” Physica E, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1276–1280, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. Kim, Y. J. Kim, Y. A. Kim et al., “High performance of cup-stacked-type carbon nanotubes as a Pt-Ru catalyst support for fuel cell applications,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 5903–5905, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. Q. Liu, W. Ren, B. Liu et al., “Synthesis, purification and opening of short cup-stacked carbon nanotubes,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 4554–4560, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, S. Naokawa, T. Yanagisawa, and M. Endo, “Comparative study of herringbone and stacked-cup carbon nanofibers,” Carbon, vol. 43, no. 14, pp. 3005–3008, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. N. Sohi and R. Naghdabadi, “Stability of single-walled carbon nanopeapods under combined axial compressive load and external pressure,” Physica E, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 513–517, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. H. Kuzmany, A. Kukovecz, F. Simon, M. Holzweber, C. Kramberger, and T. Pichler, “Functionalization of carbon nanotubes,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 141, no. 1-2, pp. 113–122, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. B. Vigolo, V. Mamane, F. Valsaque et al., “Evidence of sidewall covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes and its advantages for composite processing,” Carbon, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 411–419, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. Blondeau, F. X. Rius-Ruiz, A. Duzgun, J. Riu, and F. X. Rius, “Covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with adenosine monophosphate: towards the synthesis of SWCNT-Aptamer hybrids,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1363–1368, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. A. Khazaei, M. N. S. Rad, M. K. Borazjani, S. Saednia, M. K. Borazjani, and D. Soudbar, “Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with 4-benzo-9-crown-3 ether,” Synlett, no. 15, Article ID B01411ST, pp. 2145–2150, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. S. Akbar and A. A. Taimoor, “Functionalization of carbon nanotubes: manufacturing techniques and properties of customized nanocomponents for molecular-level technology,” Recent Patents on Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 154–161, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. A. L. Alpatova, W. Shan, P. Babica et al., “Single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in aqueous media via non-covalent functionalization: effect of dispersant on the stability, cytotoxicity, and epigenetic toxicity of nanotube suspensions,” Water Research, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 505–520, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. Ghosh, K. V. Rao, R. Voggu, and S. J. George, “Non-covalent functionalization, solubilization of graphene and single-walled carbon nanotubes with aromatic donor and acceptor molecules,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 488, no. 4–6, pp. 198–201, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. H. Chen, H. Xiong, Y. Gao, and H. Li, “Covalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with polybutadiene,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 1272–1277, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. M. Hussain, C. Saridara, and S. Mitra, “Modifying the sorption properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes via covalent functionalization,” Analyst, vol. 134, no. 9, pp. 1928–1933, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. C. Salvador-Morales, E. V. Basiuk, V. A. Basiuk, M. L. H. Green, and R. B. Sim, “Effects of covalent functionalization on the biocompatibility characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 2347–2356, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. Q. Shi, D. Yang, Y. Su et al., “Covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by lipase,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1205–1210, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J. Liu, O. Bibari, P. Mailley et al., “Stable non-covalent functionalisation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by pyrene-polyethylene glycol through pi-pi stacking,” New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1017–1024, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  93. X. Li, S. Y. Wong, W. C. Tjiu, B. P. Lyons, S. A. Oh, and C. B. He, “Non-covalent functionalization of multi walled carbon nanotubes and their application for conductive composites,” Carbon, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 829–831, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. B. J. Hinds, N. Chopra, T. Rantell, R. Andrews, V. Gavalas, and L. G. Bachas, “Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Membranes,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5654, pp. 62–65, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. Y. K. Choi, Y. Gotoh, K. I. Sugimoto, S. M. Song, T. Yanagisawa, and M. Endo, “Processing and characterization of epoxy nanocomposites reinforced by cup-stacked carbon nanotubes,” Polymer, vol. 46, no. 25, pp. 11489–11498, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. Rahmat and P. Hubert, “Carbon nanotube-polymer interactions in nanocomposites: a review,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 72–84, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. H. K. F. Cheng, Y. Z. Pan, N. G. Sahoo et al., “Improvement in properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube/polypropylene nanocomposites through homogeneous dispersion with the aid of surfactants,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 1117–1127, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  98. C.-R. Yu, D.-M. Wu, Y. Liu et al., “Electrical and dielectric properties of polypropylene nanocomposites based on carbon nanotubes and barium titanate nanoparticles,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 71, no. 15, pp. 1706–1712, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. X. H. Peng, M. X. Li, H. W. Zou, P. Fan, and P. B. Liu, “Morphology and properties of functionalised MWNT/polypropylene composites,” Rubber & Plastics Company, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  100. J. Yu, K. Peng, X. L. Gong, and Z. Zhang, “Creep and recovery of polypropylene/carbon nanotube composites,” International Journal of Plasticity, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1239–1251, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  101. Y. Ngabonziza, J. Li, and C. F. Barry, “Electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube-reinforced polypropylene nanocomposites,” Acta Mechanica, vol. 220, no. 1–4, pp. 289–298, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. D. R. Yu and G. H. Kim, “Effect of processing parameters on the surface resistivity of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 2962–2967, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  103. R. Wen, K. Ke, Y. Wang, B. H. Xie, and M. B. Yang, “Interfacial interaction of polyvinylidene fluoride/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites: a rheological study,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 212, no. 5, pp. 3041–3046, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  104. M. Kato, A. Usuki, N. Hasegawa, H. Okamoto, and M. Kawasumi, “Development and applications of polyolefin- and rubber-clay nanocomposites,” Polymer Journal, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 583–593, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. B. K. Singh, P. Kar, N. K. Shrivastava, S. Banerjee, and B. B. Khatua, “Electrical and mechanical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/multiwall carbon nanotube nanocomposites prepared by melt-blending,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 3165–3174, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  106. Z. Jiang, P. Hornsby, R. McCool, and A. Murphy, “Mechanical and thermal properties of polyphenylene sulfide/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 2676–2683, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  107. A. May-Pat, F. Aviles, P. Toro, M. Yazdani-Pedram, and J. V. Cauich-Rodriguez, “Mechanical properties of PET composites using multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized by inorganic and itaconic acids,” Express Polymer Letters, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 96–106, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. M. R. Loos and K. Schulte, “Is it worth the effort to reinforce polymers with carbon nanotubes?” Macromolecular Theory and Simulations, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 350–362, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. Y. Wang, Z. Xu, L. Chen, Y. Jiao, and X. Wu, “Multi-scale hybrid composites-based carbon nanotubes,” Polymer Composites, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 159–167, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  110. M. Razavi-Nouri, “Effect of carbon nanotubes on dynamic mechanical properties, TGA, and crystalline structure of polypropylene,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 2541–2549, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  111. X. Q. Liu, W. Yang, B. H. Xie, and M. B. Yang, “Influence of multiwall carbon nanotubes on the morphology, melting, crystallization and mechanical properties of polyamide 6/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blends,” Materials & Design, vol. 34, pp. 355–362, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  112. B. X. Du and Z. P. Fang, “Effects of carbon nanotubes on the thermal stability and flame retardancy of intumescent flame-retarded polypropylene,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 1725–1731, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. M. Supova, G. S. Martynkova, and K. Barabaszova, “Effect of nanofillers dispersion in polymer matrices: a review,” Science of Advanced Materials, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–25, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  114. M. H. Al-Saleh and U. Sundararaj, “Review of the mechanical properties of carbon nanofiber/polymer composites,” Composites A, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 2126–2142, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  115. A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev et al., “Crystalline ropes of metallic carbon nanotubes,” Science, vol. 273, no. 5274, pp. 483–487, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  116. Y. An, X. T. He, W. M. Yang, and Y. M. Ding, “Effect of surfactants on the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in epoxy resin,” in Advanced Polymer Science and Engineering, C. H. Wang, L. X. Ma, and W. Yang, Eds., pp. 1–7, Trans TechPublications, Zurich, Switserland, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  117. N. Diouri and M. Baitoul, “Studies of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) dispersion in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA),” Mediterranean Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 18–22, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  118. H. Wang, “Dispersing carbon nanotubes using surfactants,” Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 364–371, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  119. G. C. Papanicolaou, K. P. Papaefthymiou, A. F. Koutsomitopoulou, D. V. Portan, and S. P. Zaoutsos, “Effect of dispersion of MWCNTs on the static and dynamic mechanical behavior of epoxy matrix nanocomposites,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 350–359, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  120. E. C. Botelho, E. R. Edwards, B. Bittmann, and T. Burkhart, “Dispersing carbon nanotubes in phenolic resin using an aqueous solution,” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2040–2047, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  121. K. Mukhopadhyay, C. D. Dwivedi, and G. N. Mathur, “Conversion of carbon nanotubes to carbon nanofibers by sonication,” Carbon, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1373–1376, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  122. N. Grossiord, J. Loos, O. Regev, and C.E. Koning, “Toolbox for dispersing carbon nanotubes into polymers to get conductive nanocomposites,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1089–1099, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  123. J. K. W. Sandler, J. E. Kirk, I. A. Kinloch, M. S. P. Shaffer, and A. H. Windle, “Ultra-low electrical percolation threshold in carbon-nanotube-epoxy composites,” Polymer, vol. 44, no. 19, pp. 5893–5899, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  124. J. Sandler, M. S. P. Shaffer, T. Prasse, W. Bauhofer, K. Schulte, and A. H. Windle, “Development of a dispersion process for carbon nanotubes in an epoxy matrix and the resulting electrical properties,” Polymer, vol. 40, no. 21, pp. 5967–5971, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. J. L. Bahr and J. M. Tour, “Covalent chemistry of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1952–1958, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. S. J. Park, M. S. Cho, S. T. Lim, H. J. Choi, and M. S. Jhon, “Synthesis and dispersion characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotube composites with poly(methyl methacrylate) prepared by in-situ bulk polymerization,” Macromolecular Rapid Communications, vol. 24, no. 18, pp. 1070–1073, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  127. M. S. P. Shaffer and K. Koziol, “Polystyrene grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Chemical Communications, no. 18, pp. 2074–2075, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. J. Chen, H. Liu, W. A. Weimer, M. D. Halls, D. H. Waldeck, and G. C. Walker, “Noncovalent engineering of carbon nanotube surfaces by rigid, functional conjugated polymers,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 31, pp. 9034–9035, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. G. B. Blanchet, C. R. Fincher, and F. Gao, “Polyaniline nanotube composites: a high-resolution printable conductor,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 1290–1292, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. W. Feng, X. D. Bai, Y. Q. Lian, J. Liang, X. G. Wang, and K. Yoshino, “Well-aligned polyaniline/carbon-nanotube composite films grown by in-situ aniline polymerization,” Carbon, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1551–1557, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. H. Zengin, W. Zhou, J. Jin et al., “Carbon nanotube doped polyaniline,” Advanced Materials, vol. 14, no. 20, pp. 1480–1483, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  132. C. Park, Z. Ounaies, K. A. Watson et al., “Dispersion of single wall carbon nanotubes by in situ polymerization under sonication,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 364, no. 3-4, pp. 303–308, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. R. Ramasubramaniam, J. Chen, and H. Liu, “Homogeneous carbon nanotube/polymer composites for electrical applications,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 83, no. 14, pp. 2928–2930, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. H. Cebeci, R. G. D. Villoria, A. J. Hart, and B. L. Wardle, “Multifunctional properties of high volume fraction aligned carbon nanotube polymer composites with controlled morphology,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 69, no. 15-16, pp. 2649–2656, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  135. X. L. Xie, Y. W. Mai, and X. P. Zhou, “Dispersion and alignment of carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix: a review,” Materials Science and Engineering R, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 89–112, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. P. S. Goh, A. F. Ismail, S. M. Sanip, B. C. Ng, and M. Aziz, “Recent advances of inorganic fillers in mixed matrix membrane for gas separation,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 243–264, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  137. K. Sears, L. Dumee, J. Schutz et al., “Recent developments in carbon nanotube membranes for water purification and gas separation,” Materials, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 127–149, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  138. L. F. Dumee, K. Sears, J. Schutz et al., “Characterization and evaluation of carbon nanotube Bucky-Paper membranes for direct contact membrane distillation,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 351, no. 1-2, pp. 36–43, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  139. L. Dumee, V. Germain, K. Sears et al., “Enhanced durability and hydrophobicity of carbon nanotube bucky paper membranes in membrane distillation,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 376, no. 1-2, pp. 241–246, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. S. Karan, S. Samitsu, X. Peng, K. Kurashima, and I. Ichinose, “Ultrafast viscous permeation of organic solvents through diamond-like carbon nanosheets,” Science, vol. 335, no. 6067, pp. 444–447, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  141. Q. Chen, L. Meng, Q. Li et al., “Water transport and purification in nanochannels controlled by asymmetric wettability,” Small, vol. 7, no. 15, pp. 2225–2231, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  142. M. Majumder, N. Chopra, and B. J. Hinds, “Effect of tip functionalization on transport through vertically oriented carbon nanotube membranes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 25, pp. 9062–9070, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. B. Hinds, “Dramatic transport properties of carbon nanotube membranes for a robust protein channel mimetic platform,” Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  144. P. Nednoor, V. G. Gavalas, N. Chopra, B. J. Hinds, and L. G. Bachas, “Carbon nanotube based biomimetic membranes: mimicking protein channels regulated by phosphorylation,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 18, pp. 1755–1757, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. Z. Mao and S. B. Sinnott, “Separation of organic molecular mixtures in carbon nanotubes and bundles: molecular dynamics simulations,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 105, no. 29, pp. 6916–6924, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. A. I. Skoulidas, D. M. Ackerman, J. K. Johnson, and D. S. Sholl, “Rapid transport of gases in carbon nanotubes,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 89, no. 18, pp. 185901/1–185901/4, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. S. Joseph and N. R. Aluru, “Why are carbon nanotubes fast transporters of water?” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 452–458, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. O. Bakhtiari, S. Mosleh, T. Khosravi, and T. Mohammadi, “Synthesis and characterization of polyimide mixed matrix membranes,” Separation Science and Technology, vol. 46, no. 13, pp. 2138–2147, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  149. Y. Mansourpanah, S. S. Madaeni, A. Rahimpour, M. Adeli, M. Y. Hashemi, and M. R. Moradian, “Fabrication new PES-based mixed matrix nanocomposite membranes using polycaprolactone modified carbon nanotubes as the additive: property changes and morphological studies,” Desalination, vol. 277, no. 1–3, pp. 171–177, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. A. F. Ismail, N. H. Rahim, A. Mustafa et al., “Gas separation performance of polyethersulfone/multi-walled carbon nanotubes mixed matrix membranes,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 20–31, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. P. S. Goh, B. C. Ng, A. F. Ismail, S. M. Sanip, M. Aziz, and M. A. Kassim, “Effect of dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes on mixed matrix membrane for O2/N2 separation,” Separation Science and Technology, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1250–1261, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. L. Ge, Z. Zhu, and V. Rudolph, “Enhanced gas permeability by fabricating functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethersulfone nanocomposite membrane,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 76–82, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. S. Qiu, L. Wu, G. Shi, L. Zhang, H. Chen, and C. Gao, “Preparation and pervaporation property of chitosan membrane with functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 49, no. 22, pp. 11667–11675, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. H. Cong, J. Zhang, M. Radosz, and Y. Shen, “Carbon nanotube composite membranes of brominated poly(2,6-diphenyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) for gas separation,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 294, no. 1-2, pp. 178–185, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. G. Arora and S. I. Sandler, “Air separation by single wall carbon nanotubes: mass transport and kinetic selectivity,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 124, no. 8, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. H. Chen and D. S. Sholl, “Predictions of selectivity and flux for CH4/H2 separations using single walled carbon nanotubes as membranes,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 269, no. 1-2, pp. 152–160, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. A. I. Skoulidas, D. S. Sholl, and J. K. Johnson, “Adsorption and diffusion of carbon dioxide and nitrogen through single-walled carbon nanotube membranes,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 124, no. 5, Article ID 054708, pp. 1–7, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  158. G. Arora and S. I. Sandler, “Molecular sieving using single wall carbon nanotubes,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 565–569, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. K. Sangil, J. R. Jinschek, H. Chen, D. S. Sholl, and E. Marand, “Scalable fabrication of carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposite membranes for high flux gas transport,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 2806–2811, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. A. A. Gusev and O. Guseva, “Rapid mass transport in mixed matrix nanotube/polymer membranes,” Advanced Materials, vol. 19, no. 18, pp. 2672–2676, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. A. Sharma, S. Kumar, B. Tripathi, M. Singh, and Y. K. Vijay, “Aligned CNT/Polymer nanocomposite membranes for hydrogen separation,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 3977–3982, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. T. H. Weng, H. H. Tseng, and M. Y. Wey, “Preparation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotube/PBNPI nanocomposite membrane for H2/CH4 separation,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, no. 20, pp. 8707–8715, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. M. A. Aroon, A. F. Ismail, M. M. Montazer-Rahmati, and T. Matsuura, “Effect of raw multi-wall carbon nanotubes on morphology and separation properties of polyimide membranes,” Separation Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 16, pp. 2287–2297, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. R. S. Murali, S. Sridhar, T. Sankarshana, and Y. V. L. Ravikumar, “Gas permeation behavior of pebax-1657 nanocomposite membrane incorporated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 49, no. 14, pp. 6530–6538, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. M. Elimelech and W. A. Phillip, “The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment,” Science, vol. 333, no. 6043, pp. 712–717, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. B. Corry, “Designing carbon nanotube membranes for efficient water desalination,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 112, no. 5, pp. 1427–1434, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. K. P. Lee, T. C. Arnot, and D. Mattia, “A review of reverse osmosis membrane materials for desalination-Development to date and future potential,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 370, no. 1-2, pp. 1–22, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. T. A. Hilder, D. Gordon, and S. H. Chung, “Salt rejection and water transport through boron nitride nanotubes,” Small, vol. 5, no. 19, pp. 2183–2190, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. B. Zhao, L. Zhang, X.-Y. Wang et al., “Research progress in nanofiltration membrane based on carbon nanotubes,” New Carbon Materials, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 321–327, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  170. H. A. Shawky, S. R. Chae, S. Lin, and M. R. Wiesner, “Synthesis and characterization of a carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposite membrane for water treatment,” Desalination, vol. 272, no. 1–3, pp. 46–50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. J. H. Choi, J. Jegal, and W. N. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer blend membranes,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 284, no. 1-2, pp. 406–415, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. A. Sotto, A. Boromand, S. Balta, J. Kim, and B. Van Der Bruggen, “Doping of polyethersulfone nanofiltration membranes: antifouling effect observed at ultralow concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 28, pp. 10311–10320, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. E. Celik, H. Park, H. Choi, and H. Choi, “Carbon nanotube blended polyethersulfone membranes for fouling control in water treatment,” Water Research, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 274–282, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. C. R. Martin and P. Kohli, “The emerging field of nanotube biotechnology,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 29–37, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. H. Hillebrenner, F. Buyukserin, J. D. Stewart, and C. R. Martin, “Template synthesized nanotubes for biomedical delivery applications,” Nanomedicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 39–50, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. L. Lacerda, S. Raffa, M. Prato, A. Bianco, and K. Kostarelos, “Cell-penetrating CNTs for delivery of therapeutics,” Nano Today, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 38–43, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. M. Prato, K. Kostarelos, and A. Bianco, “Functionalized carbon nanotubes in drug design and discovery,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 60–68, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. B. J. Hinds, “INOR 556-Aligned carbon nanotube membranes as dramatic fluid flow and biomimetic platforms,” Abstracts of Papers American Chemical Society, vol. 235, p. 556-INOR, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  179. Q. Zhao, X. Feng, S. Mei, and Z. Jin, “Carbon-nanotube-assisted high loading and controlled release of polyoxometalates in biodegradable multilayer thin films,” Nanotechnology, vol. 20, no. 10, Article ID 105101, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. J. S. Im, B. C. Bai, and Y. S. Lee, “The effect of carbon nanotubes on drug delivery in an electro-sensitive transdermal drug delivery system,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1414–1419, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. J. L. Perry, C. R. Martin, and J. D. Stewart, “Drug-delivery strategies by using template-synthesized nanotubes,” Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 23, pp. 6296–6302, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. M. E. B. Patrascu, A. Cojocariu, L. Tugulea, N. M. Badea, I. Lacatusu, and A. Meghea, “Nanostructures with liposomes and carbon nanotubese,” Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1153–1158, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  183. W. Zhang, S. Ravi, and P. Silva, “Application of carbon nanotubes in polymer electrolyte based fuel cells,” Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  184. W. H. Zhou, J. Xiao, Y. W. Chen et al., “Sulfonated carbon nanotubes/sulfonated poly (ether sulfone ether ketone ketone) composites for polymer electrolyte membranes,” Polymers for Advanced Technologies, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1747–1752, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  185. J. Maiti, N. Kakati, S. H. Lee, S. H. Jee, and Y. S. Yoon, “PVA nano composite membrane for DMFC application,” Solid State Ionics, vol. 201, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  186. S. Yun, H. Im, Y. Heo, and J. Kim, “Crosslinked sulfonated poly(vinyl alcohol)/sulfonated multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite membranes for direct methanol fuel cells,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 380, no. 1-2, pp. 208–215, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. R. Kannan, M. Parthasarathy, S. U. Maraveedu, S. Kurungot, and V. K. Pillai, “Domain size manipulation of perflouorinated polymer electrolytes by sulfonic acid-functionalized MWCNTs to enhance fuel cell performance,” Langmuir, vol. 25, no. 14, pp. 8299–8305, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. H. S. Thiam, W. R. W. Daud, S. K. Kamarudin et al., “Overview on nanostructured membrane in fuel cell applications,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 3187–3205, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. Y. L. Zhao and J. F. Stoddart, “Noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1161–1171, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus