Table of Contents
ISRN Oncology
Volume 2012, Article ID 694201, 5 pages
Review Article

The Pak4 Protein Kinase in Breast Cancer

Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA

Received 10 October 2012; Accepted 31 October 2012

Academic Editors: O. Hansen, S. Holdenrieder, and V. Lorusso

Copyright © 2012 Audrey Minden. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Paks4, along with Paks5, and 6 are members of the group B family of p21-activated kinases (Paks). The Paks play multiple different roles in controlling cell morphology, cell growth, proliferation, and signaling. Pak4 has essential roles in embryonic development (Qu et al., 2003), but in adults high levels of Pak4 are frequently associated with cancer. Pak4 has been implicated in several types of cancer (Wells and Jones, 2010; Eswaran et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2008; and Liu et al., 2010) and it is strongly linked to breast cancer (Liu et al., 2008; Liu et al. 2010; Yu et al., 2009; Rafn et al., 2012; and So et al., 2012). Breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines frequently have high levels of Pak4 (Liu et al., 2008), and overexpression of Pak4 in mammary epithelial cells leads to tumorigenesis in mice (Liu et al., 2010). This paper summarizes the current work on the role of Pak4 in breast cancer.