Table of Contents
ISRN Urology
Volume 2012, Article ID 707329, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/707329
Review Article

Phimosis in Children

Consultant Pediatrician and Neonatologist, Shahid Medical Centre, Mumbai-400 077, India

Received 22 November 2011; Accepted 19 December 2011

Academic Editors: T. Okamura and V. Tzortzis

Copyright © 2012 Sukhbir Kaur Shahid. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Steadman and P. Ellsworth, “To circ or not to circ: indications, risks, and alternatives to circumcision in the pediatric population with phimosis,” Urologic Nursing, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 181–194, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Spilsbury, J. B. Semmens, Z. S. Wisniewski, and C. D. A. J. Holman, “Circumcision for phimosis and other medical indications in Western Australian boys,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 178, no. 4, pp. 155–158, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. R. Shankar and A. M. K. Rickwood, “The incidence of phimosis in boys,” British Journal of Urology International, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 101–102, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. A. Dewan, “Treating phimosis,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 178, no. 4, pp. 148–150, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. S. Van Howe, “Is neonatal circumcision clinically beneficial? Argument against,” Nature Clinical Practice Urology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 74–75, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. C. J. Mansfield, W. J. Hueston, and M. Rudy, “Neonatal circumcision: associated factors and length of hospital stay,” Journal of Family Practice, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 370–376, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. S. Van Howe, “Cost-effective treatment of phimosis,” Pediatrics, vol. 102, no. 4, p. E43, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. H. Yiee and L. S. Baskin, “Penile embryology and anatomy,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 10, pp. 1174–1179, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. C. J. Cold and J. R. Taylor, “The prepuce,” British Journal of Urology International, vol. 83, 1, pp. 34–44, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. L. Sorrells, J. L. Snyder, M. D. Reiss et al., “Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis,” British Journal of Urology International, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 864–869, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. S. Prakash, R, Raghuram, k. Venkatesan, and S. Ramakrishnan, “Sub-preputial wetness—its nature,” Annals of National Medical Science, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 109–112, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  12. P. M. Fleiss, F. M. Hodges, and R. S. Van Howe, “Immunological functions of the human prepuce,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 364–367, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Orsola, J. Caffaratti, and J. M. Garat, “Conservative treatment of phimosis in children using a topical steroid,” Urology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 307–310, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Gairdner, “The fate of the foreskin, a study of circumcision,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, no. 4642, pp. 1433–1437, 1949. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Kayaba, H. Tamura, S. Kitajima, Y. Fujiwara, T. Kato, and T. Kato, “Analysis of shape and retractability of the prepuce in 603 Japanese boys,” Journal of Urology, vol. 156, no. 5, pp. 1813–1815, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. Imamura, “Phimosis of infants and young children in Japan,” Acta Paediatrica Japonica, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 403–405, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Ishikawa and M. Kawakita, “Preputial development in Japanese boys,” Acta Urologica Japonica, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 305–308, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Øster, “Further fate of the foreskin. Incidence of preputial adhesions, phimosis, and smegma among Danish schoolboys,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 43, no. 228, pp. 200–203, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. M. K. Rickwood and J. Walker, “Is phimosis overdiagnosed in boys and are too many circumcisions performed in consequence?” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 275–277, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Griffiths and J. D. Frank, “Inappropriate circumcision referrals by GPs,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 324–325, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Gordon and J. Collin, “Save the normal foreskin,” British Medical Journal, vol. 306, no. 6869, pp. 1–2, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. Williams, J. Chell, and L. Kapila, “Why are children referred for circumcision?” British Medical Journal, vol. 306, no. 6869, p. 28, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Kumar, M. Deb, and K. Das, “Preputial adhesions—a misunderstood entity,” Indian Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 76, no. 8, pp. 829–832, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. T. B. McGregor, J. G. Pike, and M. P. Leonard, “Phimosis—a diagnostic dilemma?” The Canadian Journal of Urology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 2598–2602, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. J. Bromage, A. Crump, and I. Pearce, “Phimosis as a presenting feature of diabetes,” British Journal of Urology International, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 338–340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. N. Fakjian, S. Hunter, G. W. Cole, and J. Miller, “An argument for circumcision. Prevention of balanitis in the adult,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 126, no. 8, pp. 1046–1047, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. L. Cates, A. Finestone, and M. Bogash, “Phimosis and diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Urology, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 406–407, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. H. M. Thomas, C. M. Ridley, and M. M. Black, “Clinical features and therapy of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus affecting males,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 126–128, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  29. T. B. McGregor, J. G. Pike, and M. P. Leonard, “Pathologic and physiologic phimosis: approach to the phimotic foreskin,” Canadian Family Physician, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 445–448, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. T. Lundquist and L. B. Stack, “Diseases of the foreskin, penis, and urethra,” Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 529–546, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Minagawa and Y. Murata, “A case of urinary retention caused by true phimosis,” Acta Urologica Japonica, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 427–429, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Meuli, J. Briner, B. Hanimann, and P. Sacher, “Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus causing phimosis in boys: a prospective study with 5-year followup after complete circumcision,” Journal of Urology, vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 987–989, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. S. Kikiros, S. W. Beasley, and A. A. Woodward, “The response of phimosis to local steroid application,” Pediatric Surgery International, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 329–332, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. E. Wright, “The Treatment of childhood phimosis with topical steroid,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 327–328, 1995, Erratum in: Aust N Z J Surg 1995;65(9):698. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Z. Ghory and R. Sharma, “Phimosis and paraphimosis,” http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/777539.
  36. C. J. Camille, R. L. Kuo, and J. S. Wiener, “Caring for the uncircumcised penis: what parents (and you) need to know,” Contemporary Pediatrics, vol. 11, p. 61, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  37. Z. Golubovic, D. Milanovic, V. Vukadinovic, I. Rakic, and S. Perovic, “The conservative treatment of phimosis in boys,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 786–788, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Kragballe, “Topical corticosteroids: mechanisms of action,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, Supplement, vol. 69, no. 151, pp. 7–10, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  39. P. Lehmann, P. Zheng, R. M. Lavker, and A. M. Kligman, “Corticosteroid atrophy in human skin. A study by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 169–176, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. S. Palmer and J. S. Palmer, “The efficacy of topical betamethasone for treating phimosis: a comparison of two treatment regimens,” Urology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 68–71, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. C. C. Chu, K. E. C. Chen, and G. Y. Diau, “Topical steroid treatment of phimosis in boys,” Journal of Urology, vol. 162, no. 3 I, pp. 861–863, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. A. Monsour, H. H. Rabinovitch, and G. E. Dean, “Medical management of phimosis in children: our experience with topical steroids,” Journal of Urology, vol. 162, no. 3, pp. 1162–1164, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. K. Pless, N. Spjeldnœs, and T. M. Jørgensen, “Topical steroids in the treatment of phimosis in children,” Ugeskrift for Laeger, vol. 161, no. 47, pp. 6493–6495, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  44. P. Ellsworth and A. Berry, “Acceptance and success of topical betamethasone for phimosis as an alternative to circumcision,” Abstract presented at the Northeastern and New England Sections of the American Urologic Association Joint Annual Meeting held on November 2–6, 2005.
  45. J. M. Elmore, L. A. Baker, W. T. Snodgrass, and P. Dewan, “Topical steroid therapy as an alternative to circumcision for phimosis in boys younger than 3 years,” Journal of Urology, vol. 168, no. 4, supplement, pp. 1746–1747, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. E. Ashfield, K. R. Nickel, D. R. Siemens, A. E. MacNeily, and J. C. Nickel, “Treatment of phimosis with topical steroids in 194 children,” Journal of Urology, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 1106–1108, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. P. A. Dewan, H. C. Tieu, and B. S. Chieng, “Phimosis: is circumcision necessary?” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 285–289, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. E. T. Jørgensen and A. Svensson, “The treatment of phimosis in boys, with a potent topical steroid (clobetasol propionate 0.05%) cream,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 55–56, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. T. Lindhagen, “Topical clobetasol propionate compared with placebo in the treatment of unretractable foreskin,” European Journal of Surgery, vol. 162, no. 12, pp. 969–972, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Klyver, S. O. Mortensen, O. P. Klarskov, and P. Christiansen, “Treatment of phimosis with a topical steroid in boys,” Ugeskrift for Laeger, vol. 163, no. 7, pp. 922–924, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. M. Webster and M. P. Leonard, “Topical steroid therapy for phimosis,” The Canadian Journal of Urology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1492–1495, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Khope, “Topical mometasone furoate for phimosis,” Indian Pediatrics, vol. 47, no. 3, p. 282, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. D. O. Pileggi and Y. A. M. V. A. Vicente, “Phimotic ring topical corticoid cream (0.1% mometasone furoate) treatment in children,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1749–1752, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  54. D. Berdeu, L. Sauze, P. Ha-Vinh, and C. Blum-Boisgard, “Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for phimosis: a comparison of surgical and medicinal approaches and their economic effect,” British Journal of Urology International, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 239–244, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. D. Nobre, R. G. Freitas, M. J. Felizardo, V. Ortiz, and A. Macedo, “To circ or not to circ: clinical and pharmacoeconomic outcomes of a prospective trial of topical steroid versus primary circumcision,” International Brazilian Journal of Urology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 75–83, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. E. Yilmaz, E. Batislam, M. M. Basar, and H. Basar, “Psychological trauma of circumcision in the phallic period could be avoided by using topical steroids,” International Journal of Urology, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 651–656, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Fortier-Beaulieu, E. Thomine, P. Mitrofanof, P. Laurent, and J. Heinet, “Lichen sclerosusetatrophicus in children,” Annals of Pediatric, vol. 37, pp. 673–676, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  58. M. Kemal Atilla, R. Dündaröz, O. Odabaş, H. Oztürk, R. Akin, and E. Gökçay, “A nonsurgical approach to the treatment of phimosis: local nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ointment application,” Journal of Urology, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 196–197, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. I. Muller and H. Muller, “New conservative therapy of phimosis,” Monatsschrift fur Kinderheilkunde, vol. 141, no. 7, pp. 607–608, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  60. C. Lisboa, A. Ferreira, C. Resende, and A. G. Rodrigues, “Infectious balanoposthitis: management, clinical and laboratory features,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 121–124, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  61. B. Garcia-Bravo, P. Sanchez-Pedreno, A. Rodriguez-Pichardo, and F. Camacho, “Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. A study of 76 cases and their relation to diabetes,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 482–485, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. G. Cooper, G. J. L. Thomson, and P. A. M. Raine, “Therapeutic retraction of the foreskin in childhood,” British Medical Journal, vol. 286, no. 6360, pp. 186–187, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. D. M. Griffiths and N. V. Freeman, “Non-surgical separation of preputial adhesions,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8398, p. 344, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. G. A. MacKinlay, “Save the prepuce. Painless separation of preputial adhesions in the outpatient clinic,” British Medical Journal, vol. 297, no. 6648, pp. 590–591, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Lim, Y. Saw, P. N. Wake, and R. S. Croton, “Use of a eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics in the release of preputial adhesions: is it a worthwhile alternative?” British Journal of Urology, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 428–430, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. Y. He and X. H. Zhou, “Balloon dilation treatment of phimosis in boys. Report of 512 cases,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 491–493, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. N. Zampieri, M. Corroppolo, F. S. Camoglio, L. Giacomello, and A. Ottolenghi, “Phimosis: stretching methods with or without application of topical steroids?” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 147, no. 5, pp. 705–706, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  68. C. Ghysel, K. Vander Eeckt, and G. A. Bogaert, “Long-term efficiency of skin stretching and a topical corticoid cream application for unretractable foreskin and phimosis in prepubertal boys,” Urologia Internationalis, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 81–88, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  69. S. Parkash, “Phimosis and its plastic correction,” Journal of the Indian Medical Association, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 389–390, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. G. Kodega and G. Kus, “Operative treatment of phimosis by means of spiraloplastic operation of the foreskin,” Urologija i Nefrologija, vol. 38, pp. 56–57, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  71. D. E. W. Holmlund, “Dorsal incision of the prepuce and skin closure with dexon in patients with phimosis,” Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, vol. 7, no. 2-3, pp. 97–99, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  72. A. J. J. Emmett, “Four V flap repair of preputial stenosis (phimosis). An alternative to circumcision,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 687–689, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. Parkash and B. Raghurama Rao, “Preputial stenosis-its site and correction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 281–282, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. T. Ohjimi and H. Ohjimi, “Special surgical techniques for relief of phimosis,” Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 326–330, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. J. J. Emmett, “Z-plasty reconstruction for preputial stenosis—a surgical alternative to circulation,” Australian Paediatric Journal, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 219–220, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. G. Codega, D. Guizzardi, P. Di Giuseppe, and P. Fassi, “The helicoidalis plasty for the treatment of phimosis,” Minerva Chirurgica, vol. 38, no. 22, pp. 1903–1907, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. Hoffman, P. Metz, and J. Ebbehoj, “A new operation for phimosis: prepuce-saving technique with multiple Y-V-plasties,” British Journal of Urology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 319–321, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. G. Moro, R. Gesmundo, A. Bevilacqua, E. Maiullari, and R. Gandini, “Circumcision with preputioplasty: notes on operative technique,” Minerva Chirurgica, vol. 43, pp. 893–894, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  79. N. Wahlin, “‘Triple incision plasty’. A convenient procedure for preputial relief,” Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 107–110, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. P. M. Cuckow, G. Rix, and P. D. E. Mouriquand, “Preputial plasty: a good alternative to circumcision,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 561–563, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. H. De Castella, “Prepuceplasty: an alternative to circumcision,” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 257–258, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. J. Leal and J. Mendes, “Ritual circumcision and the plastic repair of phimosis,” Acta Medica Portuguesa, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 475–481, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. H. Ohjimi, K. Ogata, and T. Ohjimi, “A new method for the relief of adult phimosis,” Journal of Urology, vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 1607–1609, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. R. Pascotto and E. Giancotti, “The treatment of phimosis in childhood without circumcision: plastic repair of the prepuce,” Minerva Chirurgica, vol. 53, pp. 561–565, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  85. T. M. Lane and L. M. South, “Lateral preputioplasty for phimosis,” Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 310–312, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. A. K. Saxena, K. Schaarschmidt, A. Reich, and G. H. Willital, “Non-retractile foreskin: a single center 13-year experience,” International Surgery, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 180–183, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. C. Fischer-Klein and M. Rauchenwald, “Triple incision to treat phimosis in children: an alternative to circumcision?” British Journal of Urology International, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 459–462, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. Diaz and H. I. Kantor, “Dorsal slit. A circumcision alternative,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 619–622, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. G. E. Dean, M. L. Ritchie, and M. R. Zaontz, “La Vega slit procedure for the treatment of phimosis,” Urology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 419–421, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. Fraser, “The origins of circumcision,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, no. 2295, pp. 1704–1705, 1904. View at Google Scholar
  91. A. G. Dampier-Bennett, “The origin of circumcision,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, no. 2430, pp. 243–244, 1907. View at Google Scholar
  92. R. P. Terlecki and R. A. Santucci, “Phimosis, adult circumcision and buried penis,” http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/442617.
  93. C. M. Ginsburg and G. H. McCracken, “Urinary tract infections in young infants,” Pediatrics, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 409–412, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. T. E. Wiswell, F. R. Smith, and J. W. Bass, “Decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants,” Pediatrics, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 901–903, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. E. Wiswell, “Futher evidence for the decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants,” Pediatrics, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 96–99, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. N. Wiliams and L. Kapila, “Complications of circumcision,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 1231–1236, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. G. W. Kaplan, “Complications of circumcision,” Urologic Clinics of North America, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 543–549, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. R. K. Winkelmann, “The erogenous zones: their nerve supply and its significance,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 39–47, 1959. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. G. C. Denniston, G. Hill, G. J. Boyle, and T. Senkul, “Circumcision in adults: effect on sexual function,” Urology, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1267–1268, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  100. Z. Shen, S. Chen, C. Zhu, Q. Wan, and Z. Chen, “Erectile function evaluation after adult circumcision,” National Journal of Andrology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 18–19, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. S. Masood, H. R. H. Patel, R. C. Himpson, J. H. Palmer, G. R. Mufti, and M. K. M. Sheriff, “Penile sensitivity and sexual satisfaction after circumcision: are we informing men correctly?” Urologia Internationalis, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 62–66, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  102. M. Milos and D. Macris, Circumcision: Effects Upon Human Sexuality, Encyclopedia of Human Sexuality, Garland Pub., New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  103. J. P. Warren and J. Bigelow, “The case against circumcision,” British Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 21, no. 5, p. 68, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  104. G. Zwang, “Functional and erotic consequences of sexual mutilations,” in Sexual Mutilations: A Human Tragedy New York and London, G. C. Denniston and M. F. Milos, Eds., Plenum Press, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  105. K. O'Hara and J. O'Hara, “The effect of male circumcision on the sexual enjoyment of the female partner,” British Journal of Urology International, vol. 83, no. 1, supplement, pp. 79–84, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus