Figure 2: Sites of action of antirestenotic drugs. After surgical treatment for atherosclerosis, a number of drugs with antirestenotic potential may be administered to retard or eliminate the development of restenosis or vein graft disease. These include anticoagulants, antiplatelet and antithrombotic drugs, anti-inflammatory agents, antiproliferative and cytostatic drugs, lipid-lowering drugs, and antioxidants. ACE-I: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; HSPG: heparan sulphate proteoglycan; MMP: matrix metalloproteinase; mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin; NO: nitric oxide; SMC: smooth muscle cell; tPA: tissue plasminogen activator; uPA: urokinase plasminogen activator.