Table of Contents
ISRN Endocrinology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 757913, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/757913
Research Article

Oral Metformin Treatment Prevents Enhanced Insulin Demand and Placental Dysfunction in the Pregnant Rat Fed a Fructose-Rich Diet

1Neuroendocrine Unit, IMBICE (CONICET La Plata-CICPBA), P.O. Box 403, 1900 La Plata, Argentina
2CENEXA (CONICET La Plata-UNLP), Argentina
3Reproductive Endocrinology Section, Perinat, 1900 La Plata, Argentina

Received 24 April 2012; Accepted 25 June 2012

Academic Editors: H. Galbo and J.-F. Tanti

Copyright © 2012 Ana Alzamendi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. M. Catalano, J. P. Kirwan, S. M. Haugel-De, and J. King, “Gestational diabetes and insulin resistance: role in short- and long-term implications for mother and fetus,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 1674S–1683S, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. L. Silverman, T. A. Rizzo, N. H. Cho, and B. E. Metzger, “Long-term effects of the intrauterine environment: the northwestern university diabetes in pregnancy center,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. B142–B149, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. J. Pettitt, R. G. Nelson, M. F. Saad, P. H. Bennett, and W. C. Knowler, “Diabetes and obesity in the offspring of Pima Indian women with diabetes during pregnancy,” Diabetes Care, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 310–314, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. R. Vohr, S. T. McGarvey, and R. Tucker, “Effects of maternal gestational diabetes on offspring adiposity at 4–7 years of age,” Diabetes Care, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1284–1291, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. S. Kvehaugen, L. F. Andersen, and A. C. Staff, “Anthropometry and cardiovascular risk factors in women and offspring after pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia or diabetes mellitus,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 1478–1485, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. I. M. Bernstein and P. M. Catalano, “Examination of factors contributing to the risk of cesarean delivery in women with gestational diabetes,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 462–465, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. I. Schmidt, B. B. Duncan, A. J. Reichelt et al., “Gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed with a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and adverse pregnancy outcomes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1151–1155, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Wolf, L. Sandler, K. Muñoz, K. Hsu, J. L. Ecker, and R. Thadhani, “First trimester insulin resistance and subsequent preeclampsia: a prospective study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 1563–1568, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Thadhani, J. L. Ecker, W. P. Mutter et al., “Insulin resistance and alterations in angiogenesis: additive insults that may lead to preeclampsia,” Hypertension, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 988–992, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. Chou, I. Suzuma, K. J. Way et al., “Decreased cardiac expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in insulin-resistant and diabetic states: a possible explanation for impaired collateral formation in cardiac tissue,” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 373–379, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Montagnani, L. V. Ravichandran, H. Chen, D. L. Esposito, and M. J. Quon, “Insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 are required for insulin-stimulated production of nitric oxide in endothelial cells,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1931–1942, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Vicent, J. Ilany, T. Kondo et al., “The role of endothelial insulin signaling in the regulation of vascular tone and insulin resistance,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 111, no. 9, pp. 1373–1380, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. C. Luft, “Soluble endoglin (sEng) joins the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt) receptor as a pre-eclampsia molecule,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 3052–3054, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. C. Kappas, G. Zeng, J. C. Chappell et al., “The VEGF receptor Flt-1 spatially modulates Flk-1 signaling and blood vessel branching,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 181, no. 5, pp. 847–858, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. K. Hamilton, E. Odrobina, J. Yin, A. J. Hanley, B. Zinman, and R. Retnakaran, “Maternal insulin sensitivity during pregnancy predicts infant weight gain and adiposity at 1 year of age,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 340–346, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. S. Patel and M. Srinivasan, “Metabolic programming due to alterations in nutrition in the immediate postnatal period,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 658–661, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Alzamendi, D. Castrogiovanni, R. C. Gaillard, E. Spinedi, and A. Giovambattista, “Increased male offspring's risk of metabolic-neuroendocrine dysfunction and overweight after fructose-rich diet intake by the lactating mother,” Endocrinology, vol. 151, no. 9, pp. 4214–4223, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. D. Taylor and L. Poston, “Developmental programming of obesity in mammals,” Experimental Physiology, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 287–298, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. C. McMillen and J. S. Robinson, “Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 571–633, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. S. Elliott, N. L. Keim, J. S. Stern, K. Teff, and P. J. Havel, “Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 911–922, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. A. Bray, S. J. Nielsen, and B. M. Popkin, “Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 537–543, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. O. R. Rebolledo, C. A. Marra, A. Raschia, S. Rodriguez, and J. J. Gagliardino, “Abdominal adipose tissue: early metabolic dysfunction associated to insulin resistance and oxidative stress induced by an unbalanced diet,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 794–800, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Alzamendi, A. Giovambattista, A. Raschia et al., “Fructose-rich diet-induced abdominal adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in normal male rats,” Endocrine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 227–232, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Alzamendi, D. Castrogiovanni, H. H. Ortega, R. C. Gaillard, A. Giovambattista, and E. Spinedi, “Parametrial adipose tissue and metabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose-rich diet in normal and neonatal-androgenized adult female rats,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 441–448, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. G. Koski and M. A. Fergusson, “Amniotic fluid composition responds to changes in maternal dietary carbohydrate and is related to metabolic status in term fetal rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 385–392, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Rawana, K. Clark, S. Zhong, A. Buison, S. Chackunkal, and K. L. C. Jen, “Low dose fructose ingestion during gestation and lactation affects carbohydrate metabolism in rat dams and their offspring,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 123, no. 12, pp. 2158–2165, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Nash, P. Wentzel, S. Lindeberg et al., “Placental dysfunction in Suramin-treated rats—a new model for pre-eclampsia,” Placenta, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 410–418, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Yilmaz, A. Sucak, S. Kilic et al., “Metformin regresses endometriotic implants in rats by improving implant levels of superoxide dismutase, vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-9,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 202, no. 4, pp. 368.e1–368.e8, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. L. Bartha, F. González-Bugatto, R. Fernández-Macías, N. L. González-González, R. Comino-Delgado, and B. Hervías-Vivancos, “Metabolic syndrome in normal and complicated pregnancies,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 178–184, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. S. Gibson, T. P. Waters, and P. M. Catalano, “Maternal weight gain in women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 560–565, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Holemans, S. Caluwaerts, L. Poston, and F. A. Van Assche, “Diet-induced obesity in the rat: a model for gestational diabetes mellitus,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 190, no. 3, pp. 858–865, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. C. Silva, D. R. Fachin, M. L. Coral, and A. M. Bertini, “. Perinatal impact of the use of metformin and glyburide for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Perinatal Medicine, vol. 40, pp. 225–228, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  33. U. Hiden, I. Lang, N. Ghaffari-Tabrizi, M. Gauster, U. Lang, and G. Desoye, “Insulin action on the human placental endothelium in normal and diabetic pregnancy,” Current Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 460–466, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Nash, M. Olovsson, and U. J. Eriksson, “Placental dysfunction in Suramin-treated rats: impact of maternal diabetes and effects of antioxidative treatment,” Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 174–184, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. A. Khan, “Role of lipids and fatty acids in macrosomic offspring of diabetic pregnancy,” Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 48, no. 2-3, pp. 79–88, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Lapolla, M. G. Dalfrà, E. Ragazzi, A. P. De Cata, and D. Fedele, “New international association of the diabetes and pregnancy study groups (IADPSG) recommendations for diagnosing gestational diabetes compared with former criteria: a retrospective study on pregnancy outcome,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 28, pp. 1074–1077, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  37. B. Charles, R. Norris, X. Xiao, and W. Hague, “Population pharmacokinetics of metformin in late pregnancy,” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. Gandhi, R. Bustani, P. Madhuvrata, and T. Farrell, “Introduction of metformin for gestational diabetes mellitus in clinical practice: has it had an impact?” European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 160, pp. 147–150, 2012. View at Google Scholar