Figure 1: Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, NF-κB, and JNK after LPS stimulation with or without preincubation with specific inhibitors. Whole blood was stimulated with LPS (100 μg/mL) for 15 min. After fixing and washing, protein lysates were prepared and subjected to ELISA analysis for phosphorylated forms of p38 MAPK, NF-κB, and JNK. Means ± SD of optical densities are expressed as the levels of activation relative to controls (set to 100%). * 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 versus data for control; ** 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 versus data for LPS. BAY = BAY117082, SB = SB203580, SP = SP600125.