Table 1: Experimental therapies based on immunomodulation of atherosclerosis.

Immunotherapeutic approachesLipid-based vaccination strategiesReference

Peptide-based vaccine (B-cell-derived CETP epitope combined with a T-helper-cell epitope)Rittershaus et al., 2000 [19]
Chimeric peptide (T-helper-cell epitope of HSP65 and a B-cell epitope of human CETP)Gaofu et al., 2005 [20]

Vaccination strategies based on epitopes of oxidized LDL
2D03-IgG, recombinant human antibodies against MDA-ApoB100Schiopu et al., 2007 [21]
Xenogeneic polyclonal antibodies against electronegative LDLGrosso et al., 2008 [10]
OxLDL-pulsed mature dendritic cellsHabets et al., 2010 [12]
Peptide of apoB-100 (p210) fused to the B subunit of cholera toxinKlingenberg et al., 2010 [22]
Tolerogenic dendritic cellsHermansson et al., 2011 [14]
Vaccination with MDA-modified fibronectinDunér et al., 2011 [13]

Heat shock proteins
Oral and nasal mucosal administration of Mycobacterium HSP60/65Maron et al., 2002 [23], Van Puijvelde et al., 2007 [24]

B-cells modulation
B cell depletion using a CD20-specific monoclonal antibodyAit-Oufella et al., 2010 [11]

Therapies based on response-to-retention hypothesis
Inhibition of LDL-biglycan binding by endostatinZeng et al. 2005 [25]
Inhibition of LDL-GAGs binding by chP3R99 monoclonal antibody Soto et al., 2012 [15]

CETP: cholesteryl ester transfer protein; HSP: heat shock protein; MDA: malondialdehyde; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; OxLDL: oxidized low-density lipoprotein; GAGs: glycosaminoglycans.