Table of Contents
ISRN Neurology
Volume 2012, Article ID 792192, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/792192
Research Article

Predictors of Conversion to Multiple Sclerosis in Patients with Clinical Isolated Syndrome Using the 2010 Revised McDonald Criteria

1Division of Neurology, Amiri Hospital, Qurtoba 73767, Kuwait
2Division of Neurology, Dasman Diabetes Institute, P.O. Box 1180, Dasman 15462, Kuwait
3Department of Neurology, Ibn Sina Hospital, P.O. Box 25427, Safat 13115, Kuwait
4Department of Medicine, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait
5Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Minia University, P.O. Box 61519, Minia 61111, Egypt

Received 30 July 2012; Accepted 8 October 2012

Academic Editors: A. K. Erdemoglu and D. Mathieu

Copyright © 2012 R. Alroughani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. H. Miller, B. G. Weinshenker, M. Filippi et al., “Diff erential diagnosis of suspected multiple sclerosis: a consensus approach,” Multiple Sclerosis, vol. 14, pp. 1157–1174, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  2. L. B. Krupp, B. Banwell, and S. Tenembaum, “Consensus definitions proposed for pediatric multiple sclerosis and related disorders,” Neurology, vol. 68, no. 16, Supplement 2, pp. S7–S12, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. H. Miller, D. T. Chard, and O. Ciccarelli, “Clinically isolated syndromes,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 11, pp. 157–169, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. E. M. Mowry, “Natural history of multiple sclerosis: early prognostic factors,” Neurologic Clinics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 279–292, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Bainbridge, “Clinically isolated syndrome: why to treat,” Advanced Studies in Pharmacy, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 63–67, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  6. C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, B. Banwell et al., “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 292–302, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Tintoré, A. Rovira, J. Río et al., “Baseline MRI predicts future attacks and disability in clinically isolated syndromes,” Neurology, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 968–972, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. A. Brex, O. Ciccarelli, J. I. O'Riordan, M. Sailer, A. J. Thompson, and D. H. Miller, “A longitudinal study of abnormalities on MRI and disability from multiple sclerosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 3, pp. 158–164, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. M. Frohman, D. S. Goodin, P. A. Calabresi et al., “The utility of MRI in suspected MS: report of the therapeutics and technology assessment subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology,” Neurology, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 602–611, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. F. Alshubaili, K. Alramzy, Y. M. Ayyad, and Y. Gerish, “Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Kuwait: new trends in incidence and prevalence,” European Neurology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 125–131, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Etemadifar and A. H. Maghzi :, “Sharp increase in the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Isfahan, Iran,” International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. 393–398, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  12. R. Alroughani, A. Ashkanani, and S. Lamdhade :, “Clinical characteristics of multiple sclerosis in Kuwait: data from the new MS registry of Amiri Hospital,” International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 82–87, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  13. J. Inshasi, M. Thakre, A. Almadani, and O. ’Connor, “Multiple sclerosis and autoimmune disease in Dubai, UAE and Toronto, Canada: a comparative hospital-based study,” Multiple Sclerosis, vol. 11:30, p. 13, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  14. C. Confavreux, S. Vukusic, and P. Adeleine, “Early clinical predictors and progression of irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis: an amnesic process,” Brain, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 770–782, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Ruet, M. S. Deloire, J. C. Ouallet, S. Molinier, and B. Brochet, “Predictive factors for multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated spinal cord syndrome,” Multiple Sclerosis, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 312–318, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. H. Polman, S. C. Reingold, G. Edan et al., “Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2005 revisions to the “McDonald Criteria”,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 840–846, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. M. Poser, D. W. Paty, and L. Scheinberg, “New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines for research protocols,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 227–231, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. W. Thrower, “Clinically isolated syndromes: predicting and delaying multiple sclerosis,” Neurology, vol. 68, no. 24, Supplement 4, pp. S12–S15, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Gómez-Moreno, M. Díaz-Sánchez, and A. Ramos-González, “Application of the 2010 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in a Spanish cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndromes,” Multiple Sclerosis, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Rovira, J. K. Swanton, M. Tintoré et al., “A single, early MRI scan for diagnosing multiple sclerosis,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 66, pp. 587–592, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Alter, L. Halpern, L. T. Kurland, B. Bornstein, U. Leibowitz, and J. Silberstein, “Multiple sclerosis in Israel. Prevalence among immigrants and native inhabitants,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 7, pp. 253–263, 1962. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. Kahana, U. Leibowitz, and M. Alter, “Brainstem and cranial nerve involvement in multiple sclerosis,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 269–279, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Tremlett, D. Paty, and V. Devonshire, “The natural history of primary progressive MS in British Columbia, Canada,” Neurology, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 1919–1923, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Tremlett, D. Paty, and V. Devonshire, “Disability progression in multiple sclerosis is slower than previously reported,” Neurology, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 172–177, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. M. Mowry, M. Pesic, B. Grimes, S. R. Deen, P. Bacchetti, and E. Waubant, “Clinical predictors of early second event in patients with clinically isolated syndrome,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 256, no. 7, pp. 1061–1066, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Tortorella, A. Bellacosa, D. Paolicelli et al., “Age-related gadolinium-enhancement of MRI brain lesions in multiple sclerosis,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 239, no. 1, pp. 95–99, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Filippi, J. S. Wolinsky, M. P. Sormani, and G. Comi, “Enhancement frequency decreases with increasing age in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis,” Neurology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 422–423, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. F. Kurtzke and W. F. Page, “Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in US veterans: VII. Risk factors for MS,” Neurology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 204–213, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. T. Wallin, W. F. Page, and J. F. Kurtzke, “Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in US veterans. VIII. Long-term survival after onset of multiple sclerosis,” Brain, vol. 123, no. 8, pp. 1677–1687, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. Runmarker and O. Andersen, “Prognostic factors in a multiple sclerosis incidence cohort with twenty-five years of follow-up,” Brain, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 117–134, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Benedikz, M. Stefánsson, J. Gumundsson et al., “The natural history of untreated multiple sclerosis in Iceland. A total population-based 50 year prospective study,” Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 208–210, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Poser, H. J. Bauer, and W. Poser, “Prognosis of multiple sclerosis. Results from an epidemiological area in Germany,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 347–354, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. K. Fisniku, P. A. Brex, D. R. Altmann et al., “Disability and T2 MRI lesions: a 20-year follow-up of patients with relapse onset of multiple sclerosis,” Brain, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 808–817, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Young, S. Quinn, M. Hurrell, and B. Taylor, “Clinically isolated acute transverse myelitis: prognostic features and incidence,” Multiple Sclerosis, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1295–1302, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Tintoré, A. Rovira, G. Arrambide et al., “Brainstem lesions in clinically isolated syndromes,” Neurology, vol. 75, no. 21, pp. 1933–1938, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. Miller, F. Barkhof, X. Montalban, A. Thompson, and M. Filippi, “Clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis, part I: natural history, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prognosis,” Lancet Neurology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 281–288, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. T. Chard, C. M. Dalton, J. Swanton et al., “MRI only conversion to multiple sclerosis following a clinically isolated Syndrome,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 82, pp. 176–179, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  38. C. Confavreux, S. Vukusic, and P. Adeleine, “Early clinical predictors and progression of irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis: an amnesic process,” Brain, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 770–782, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. West, M. Wyatt, A. High et al., “Are initial demyelinating event recovery and time to a second event under differential control?” Neurology, vol. 67, pp. 809–813, 2006. View at Google Scholar