Table of Contents
ISRN Psychiatry
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 804127, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/804127
Review Article

Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Pediatric Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Descriptive Review

1Department of Psychology, Lake Superior State University, 650 West Easterday Avenue, Sault Sainte Marie, MI 49783, USA
2School of Social Work, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
3Department of Psychology, St. Catharine College, St. Catharine, Catharine, KY 40061, USA
4Department of Psychology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101-3576, USA
5Algoma University Sault Marie, ON, Canada P6A 2G4

Received 12 November 2012; Accepted 28 November 2012

Academic Editors: K. Sagduyu and A. Weizman

Copyright © 2012 H. Russell Searight et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association Press, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 2000.
  2. R. A. Barkley, “Primary symptoms, diagnostic criteria, prevalence, and gender differences,” in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment, R. A. Barkley, Ed., Guilford, New York, NY, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  3. H. R. Searight, J. Gafford, and S. Evans, “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” in Family Medicine: Ambulatory Care and Prevention, M. Mengel and L. P. Schwiebert, Eds., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  4. L. S. Goldman, M. Genel, R. J. Bezman et al., “Diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 279, no. 14, pp. 1100–1107, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. M. Barnes, E. Powell-Griner, K. McFann, and R. L. Nahin, “Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002,” Advance Data, vol. 343, no. 10, pp. 1–9, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Lake, Integrative Mental Health Care: A Therapist's Handbook, Norton, New York, NY, USA, 2009.
  7. T. G. Stubberfield, J. A. Wray, and T. S. Parry, “Utilization of alternative therapies in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 450–453, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. Chan, “Quality of efficacy research in complementary and alternative medicine,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 299, no. 22, pp. 2685–2686, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. A. Barkley, “Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 65–94, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. R. Lyon, J. C. Cline, J. T. De Zepetnek, J. J. Shan, P. Pang, and C. Benishin, “Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study,” Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 221–228, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. J. Rucklidge, J. Johnstone, and B. J. Kaplan, “Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 461–476, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Trebaticka, S Kopsova, and Z. Hradecna, “Treatment of ADHD with French martitime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol,” European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 329–335, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Tenenbaum, J. C. Paull, E. P. Sparrow, D. K. Dodd, and L. Green, “An experimental comparison of Pycnogenol and methylphenidate in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),” Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 49–59, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. Weber, A. Vander Stoep, R. L. McCarty, N. S. Weiss, J. Biederman, and J. McClellan, “Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 299, no. 22, pp. 2633–2641, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. T. Curtis and K. Patel, “Nutritional and environmental approaches to preventing and treating autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 79–85, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Sinn, “Nutritional and dietary influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 558–568, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Starobrat-Hermelin, “The effect of deficiency of selected bioelements on hyperactivity in children with certain specified mental disorders,” Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis, vol. 44, pp. 297–314, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Kordas, R. J. Stoltzfus, P. López, J. A. Rico, and J. L. Rosado, “Iron and zinc supplementation does not improve parent or teacher ratings of behavior in first grade Mexican children exposed to lead,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 147, no. 5, pp. 632–639, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. Konofal, M. Lecendreux, J. Deron et al., “Effects of iron supplementation on attention deficit hyperactivity in children,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. Starobrat-Hermelin and T. Kozielec, “The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test,” Magnesium Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 149–156, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Akhondzadeh, M. R. Mohammadi, and M. Khademi, “Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial,” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 4, article 9, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Arnold, H. Bozzolo, J. Holloway et al., “Double-blind placebo controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 628–636, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  23. J. Brulotte, C. Bukutu, and S. Vohra, “Complementary, holistic, and integrative medicine: fish oils and neurodevelopmental disorders,” Pediatrics in Review, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. e29–e33, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Bloch and A. Qawasmi, “Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 50, pp. 991–1000, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  25. N. Sinn and J. Bryan, “Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 82–91, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Stevens, W. Zhang, L. Peck et al., “EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors,” Lipids, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1007–1021, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. Sinn, J. Bryan, and C. Wilson, “Cognitive effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a randomised controlled trial,” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 78, no. 4-5, pp. 311–326, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. I. Manor, A. Magen, D. Keidar et al., “The effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension,” European Psychiatry, vol. 27, pp. 335–342, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. G. Voigt, A. M. Llorente, C. L. Jensen, J. K. Fraley, M. C. Berretta, and W. C. Heird, “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 189–196, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Hirayama, T. Hamazaki, and K. Terasawa, “Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-containing food administration on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder—a placebo-controlled double-blind study,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 467–473, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. J. Richardson, “Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders,” International Review of Psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 155–172, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. Gillies, J. K. H. Sinn, S. S. Lad, M. J. Leach, and M. J. Ross, “Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD007986, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. L. Rojas and E. Chan, “Old and new controversies in the alternative treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 116–130, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. L. Wolraich, D. B. Wilson, and J. W. White, “The effect of sugar on behavior or cognition in children: a meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 274, no. 20, pp. 1617–1621, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. F. Feingold, “Hyperkinesis and learning disabilities linked to artificial food flavors and colors,” American Journal of Nursing, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 797–803, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. A. Kavale and S. R. Forness, “Hyperactivity and diet treatment: a meta-analysis of the Feingold hypothesis,” Journal of Learning Disabilities, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 324–330, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. McCann, A. Barrett, A. Cooper et al., “Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9598, pp. 1560–1567, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. B. Bateman, J. O. Warner, E. Hutchinson et al., “The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 506–511, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Egger, A. Stolla, and L. M. McEwen, “Controlled trial of hyposensitisation in children with food-induced hyperkinetic syndrome,” The Lancet, vol. 339, no. 8802, pp. 1150–1153, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. M. Carter, M. Urbanowicz, R. Hemsley et al., “Effects of a few food diet in attention deficit disorder,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 564–568, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. H. Schmidt, “Does oligoantigenic diet influence hyperactive/ conduct-disordered children—a controlled trial,” European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 88–95, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Heirs and M. E. Dean, “Homeopathy for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or hyperkinetic disorder (Review),” The Cochrane Library, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. H. Frei, R. Everts, K. Von Ammon et al., “Homeopathic treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 164, no. 12, pp. 758–767, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. Frei, A. Thurneysen, and K. Von Ammon, “Methodological difficulties in homeopathic treatment of children with ADD/ADHD,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 104, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. V. J. Monastra, S. Lynn, M. Linden, J. F. Lubar, J. Gruzelier, and T. J. LaVaque, “Electroencephalographic biofeedback in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 95–114, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. Fuchs, N. Birbaumer, W. Lutzenberger, J. H. Gruzelier, and J. Kaiser, “Neurofeedback treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: a comparison with methylphenidate,” Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. V. Monastra, Unlocking the Potential of Patients with ADHD: A Model for Clinical Practice, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2008.
  48. M. Arns, S. De Ridder, U. Strehl, M. Breteler, and A. Coenen, “Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis,” Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 180–189, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. V. J. Monastra, D. M. Monastra, and S. George, “The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 231–249, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. V. J. Monastra, “Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: rationale and empirical foundation,” Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 55–82, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. H. Gevensleben, B. Holl, B. Albrecht et al., “Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomised controlled clinical trial,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 780–789, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. R. Rossiter and T. J. La Vaque, “A comparison of EEG biofeedback and psychostimulants in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Journal of Neurotherapy, vol. 1, pp. 48–59, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  53. S. Loo and R. Barkley, “The EEG and ADHD: reply to Monastra,” The ADHD Report, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 9–12, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  54. R. Barkley, ADHD in Adults, Jones & Bartlett, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2009.
  55. J. Holmes, S. E. Gathercole, M. Place, D. L. Dunning, K. A. Hilton, and J. G. Elliott, “Working memory deficits can be overcome: impacts of training and medication on working memory in children with ADHD,” Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 827–836, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. Klingberg, H. Forssberg, and H. Westerberg, “Training of working memory in children with ADHD,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 781–791, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. Klingberg, E. Fernell, P. J. Olesen et al., “Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD—a randomized, controlled trial,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 177–186, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. S. Jensen and D. T. Kenny, “The effects of yoga on the attention and behavior of boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),” Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 205–216, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. L. J. Harrison, R. Manocha, and K. Rubia, “Sahaja Yoga Meditation as a family treatment programme for children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder,” Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 479–497, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. T. M. Field, O. Quintino, M. Hernandez-Reif, and G. Koslovsky, “Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder benefit from massage therapy,” Adolescence, vol. 33, no. 129, pp. 102–108, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. T. Field, J. Pickens, N. Fox, T. Nawrocki, and J. Gonzalez, “Vagal tone in infants if depressed mothers,” Development and Psychopathology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 227–231, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  62. S. Khilnani, T. Field, M. Hernandez-Reif, and S. Schanberg, “Massage therapy improves mood and behavior of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Adolescence, vol. 38, no. 152, pp. 623–638, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. P. E. Suess, S. W. Porges, and D. J. Plude, “Cardiac vagal tone and sustained attention in school-age children,” Psychophysiology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. Kratter, “The use of meditation in the treatment of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity,” Dissertation Abstracts International, vol. 44, p. 1965, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  65. G. Moretti-Altuna, “The effects of meditation versus medication in the treatment of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity,” Dissertation Abstracts International, vol. 47, p. 4658, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  66. A. E. van den Berg, T. Hartig, and H. Staats, “Preference for nature in urbanized societies: stress, restoration, and the pursuit of sustainability,” Journal of Social Issues, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 79–96, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. F. E. Kuo and A. Faber Taylor, “A potential natural treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from a national study,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 1580–1586, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. Faber Taylor and F. E. Kuo, “Children with attention deficits concentrate better after walk in the park,” Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 402–409, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. H. R. Searight, K. Robertson, T. Smith, and B. Searight, “A qualitative systematic review of complementary and alternative therapies for childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: botanicals, diet, minerals, homeopathy,” Family Medicine & Primary Care Review, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 798–803, 2011. View at Google Scholar