Figure 2: Experimental data from patients with implant-associated osteomyelitis are shown: (a) the X-ray shows a shoulder prosthesis and next to it—marked by the arrows—areas of bone resorption (image courtesy of Dr. C. Wagner, Klinik für Unfall-Wiederherstellungs-Hand-und Plastische Chirurgie, Klinikum Ingolstadt). (b) When the infected implant is removed, infiltrating cells were harvested by use of sterile saline (lavage). These cells are then ex vivo analysed by cytofluorometry. The forward-side scatter (left panel) shows two major cell populations, which were identified as PMN (CD66b positive) and T cells (CD3 positive). (c) The infiltrated PMN were activated as seen by upregulation of CD11b; for comparison cells of the peripheral blood of the patients and of healthy donors are shown (the box- and whiskers-blot shows the summary of 40 patients and 10 healthy donors).