Table of Contents
ISRN Education
Volume 2012, Article ID 853460, 6 pages
Research Article

Incidental and Intentional Instruction on Discussion Techniques: Assessing Complexity Issue

1The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia
2University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
3English Teaching Department, Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj, Iran

Received 21 December 2011; Accepted 12 February 2012

Academic Editors: B. W. Baldwin, C. Dunst, and Y. Xie

Copyright © 2012 Massoud Rahimpour and Zohre Mohamadi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Although both incidental and intentional instructions provide a medium for acquiring the communicative language, they suffer from a number of oversimplifications. Whereas the majority of studies in these paradigms have addressed second language (L2) grammatical development, there has been a growing interest in the effect of these types of instruction on pragmatic development, conversation gambits, and speech acts. The purpose of the present paper is to compare these types of instruction in promoting learning of discussion techniques. Learner performance was analyzed on the basis of the mean occurrence of discussion techniques (giving opinions and presenting series of arguments) in implicitly and explicitly instructed group using independent t-test. The quality of leaner language produced in each group was further analyzed in terms of complexity measuring the complexity of utterances and length of the turns. The results were all in favor of intentional instruction.