Table of Contents
ISRN Zoology
Volume 2012, Article ID 908560, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/908560
Research Article

Spatial Stratification of Internally and Externally Non-Pollinating Fig Wasps and Their Effects on Pollinator and Seed Abundance in Ficus burkei

1Division of Biology, Imperial College London, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK
2School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AS, UK

Received 30 November 2011; Accepted 19 December 2011

Academic Editors: M. Kuntner and S. Van Nouhuys

Copyright © 2012 Sarah Al-Beidh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. A. West, A. S. Griffin, and A. Gardner, “Evolutionary explanations for cooperation,” Current Biology, vol. 17, no. 16, pp. R661–R672, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. A. West, A. S. Griffin, and A. Gardner, “Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection,” Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 415–432, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. H. Janzen, “How to be a fig,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 10, pp. 13–51, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. D. Weiblen, “How to be a fig wasp,” Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 47, pp. 299–330, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. M. Cook and J. Y. Rasplus, “Mutualists with attitude: coevolving fig wasps and figs,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 241–248, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. A. Herre, K. C. Jandér, and C. A. Machado, “Evolutionary ecology of figs and their associates: recent progress and outstanding puzzles,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol. 39, pp. 439–458, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. N. Ganeshaiah, P. Kathuria, and R. Uma Shaanker, “Does optimal packing of flowers in syconia shape style length variation in monoecious figs?” Biotropica, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 312–320, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. N. Ganeshaiah, P. Kathuria, R. Uma Shaanker, and R. Vasudeva, “Evolution of style-length variability in figs and optimization of ovipositor length in their pollinator wasps: a coevolutionary model,” Journal of Genetics, vol. 74, no. 1-2, pp. 25–39, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. Jousselin, J. Y. Rasplus, and F. Kjellberg, “Shift to mutualism in parasitic lineages of the fig/fig wasp interaction,” Oikos, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 287–294, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. Jousselin, F. Kjellberg, and E. A. Herre, “Flower specialization in a passively pollinated monoecious fig: a question of style and stigma?” International Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 165, no. 4, pp. 587–593, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. J. C. Nefdt and S. G. Compton, “Regulation of seed and pollinator production in the fig-fig wasp mutualism,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 170–182, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. W. Yu, J. Ridley, E. Jousselin et al., “Oviposition strategies, host coercion and the stable exploitation of figs by wasps,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 271, no. 1544, pp. 1185–1195, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. W. Dunn, S. T. Segar, J. Ridley et al., “A role for parasites in stabilising the fig-pollinator mutualism,” PLoS Biology, vol. 6, no. 3, article e59, pp. 1–7, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. A. West and E. A. Herre, “The ecology of the New World fig-parasitizing wasps Idarnes and implications for the evolution of the fog-pollinator mutualism,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 258, no. 1351, pp. 67–72, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. W. Dunn, D. W. Yu, J. Ridley, and J. M. Cook, “Longevity, early emergence and body size in a pollinating fig wasp—implications for stability in a fig-pollinator mutualism,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 927–935, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. W. Wang, J. Ridley, B. F. Sun et al., “Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 11, article e7802, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. L. Bronstein, “The exploitation of mutualisms,” Ecology Letters, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 277–287, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. W. Yu, “Parasites of mutualisms,” Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 529–546, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. G. Compton and S. van Noort, “Southern African fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): resource utilisation and host relationships,” Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, vol. 95, pp. 423–435, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  20. F. P. Zhang, Y. Q. Peng, J. M. Guan, and D. R. Yang, “A species of fig tree and three unrelated fig wasp pollinators,” Evolutionary Ecology Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 611–620, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. F. Zhang, Y. Peng, S. G. Compton, Y. Zhao, and D. Yang, “Host pollination mode and mutualist pollinator presence: net effect of internally ovipositing parasite in the fig-wasp mutualism,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 543–549, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. Jousselin, M. Hossaert-Mckey, D. Vernet, and F. Kjellberg, “Egg deposition patterns of fig pollinating wasps: implications for studies on the stability of the mutualism,” Ecological Entomology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 602–608, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. E. Newton and A. Lomo, “The pollination of F. vogelii in Ghana,” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. G. Compton, K. C. Holton, V. K. Rashbrook, S. Van Noort, S. L. Vincent, and A. B. Ware, “Studies of Ceratosolen galili, a non-pollinating agaonid fig wasp,” Biotropica, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 188–194, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. Rønsted, G. Salvo, and V. Savolainen, “Biogeographical and phylogenetic origins of African fig species (Ficus section Galoglychia),” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 190–201, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. C. Berg and J. T. Wiebes, “African fig trees and fig wasps,” Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, vol. 89, pp. 1–298, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  27. Z. Bouček, A. Watsham, and J. T. Wiebes, “The fig wasp fauna of the receptacles of Ficus thonningii (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea),” Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, vol. 124, pp. 149–233, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  28. J. Galil and D. Eisikowitch, “On the pollination ecology of Ficus Sycomorus,” Ecology, vol. 49, pp. 259–269, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  29. C. Kerdelhué, M. E. Hochberg, and J. Y. Rasplus, “Active pollination of Ficus sur by two sympatric fig wasp species in West Africa,” Biotropica, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 69–75, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. A. West, E. A. Herre, D. M. Windsor, and P. R. S. Green, “The ecology and evolution of the New World non-pollinating fig wasp communities,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 447–458, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R Development Core Team, A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2005.
  32. M. J. Crawley, Statistics: An Introduction Using R, John Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
  33. J. M. Cook and S. A. Power, “Effects of within-tree flowering asynchrony on the dynamics of seed and wasp production in an Australian fig species,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 487–493, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. L. Bronstein, “The non-pollinating wasp fauna of Ficus pertusa: exploitation of a mutualism?” Oikos, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 175–186, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. C. Jander and E. A. Herre, “Host sanctions and pollinator cheating in the fig tree-fig wasp mutualism,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, vol. 277, pp. 1481–1488, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  36. E. A. Herre and S. A. West, “Conflict of interest in a mutualism: documenting the elusive fig wasp-seed trade-off,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 264, no. 1387, pp. 1501–1507, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. Jousselin, M. Hossaert-McKey, E. A. Herre, and F. Kjellberg, “Why do fig wasps actively pollinate monoecious figs?” Oecologia, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 381–387, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. A. Marussich and C. A. Machado, “Host-specificity and coevolution among pollinating and non-pollinating New World fig wasps,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1925–1946, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. Rønsted, G. D. Weiblen, J. M. Cook, N. Salamin, C. A. Machado, and V. Savolainen, “60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 272, no. 1581, pp. 2593–2599, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. L. Bronstein, D. Vernet, and M. Hossaert-McKey, “Do fig wasps interfere with each other during oviposition?” Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 321–324, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. C. Moore and J. M. Greeff, “Resource defence in female pollinating fig wasps: two's a contest, three's a crowd,” Animal Behaviour, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 1101–1107, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus