Figure 4: Ultramicroscopic analysis of mitophagy by Parkin. HeLa cells overexpressing Parkin were treated with CCCP for the indicated periods of time. Tubular mitochondria were seen in the cytoplasm before CCCP treatment. Swollen mitochondria (marked in orange) were observed in the perinuclear region of cytoplasm 6 hrs after CCCP treatment. The isolation membrane (green) encircling a swollen mitochondrion was also seen. Partially digested mitochondria in the lysosome-like vacuoles (red) were observed 14 hrs after CCCP treatment. Scale bars = 2 μm (left) and 500 nm (right). Original data were provided by Shiba-Fukushima et al.