Table of Contents
ISRN Organic Chemistry
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 928484, 9 pages
Research Article

Chitosan as a Renewable Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Knoevenagel Reaction in Ionic Liquid as Green Solvent

Department of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, VNU-HCM, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City 70350, Vietnam

Received 3 April 2012; Accepted 14 June 2012

Academic Editors: D. Chaturvedi, F. D'Anna, J. R. Hwu, and L. Novak

Copyright © 2012 Nam T. S. Phan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The combination of chitosan as a renewable heterogeneous catalyst and ionic liquid as a “green” solvent was employed for the Knoevenagel reaction. The chitosan catalyst was characterized by various techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and elemental analysis. Excellent conversions were achieved under mild conditions without the need for an inert atmosphere. There was no contribution from leached active species, and conversion was only being possible in the presence of the solid catalyst. The chitosan catalyst as well as the ionic liquid solvent could be recovered in essentially pure form after being used in the reaction, and each of them could be reused several times without a significant degradation in efficiency.