Table of Contents
ISRN Electronics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 935286, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/935286
Research Article

Review and Progress towards the Common Broadband Management of High-Voltage Transmission Grids: Model Expansion and Comparative Modal Analysis

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou, 15780 Athens, Greece

Received 27 August 2012; Accepted 30 September 2012

Academic Editors: J. Abu Qahouq, C. W. Chiou, and A. Mercha

Copyright © 2012 Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Broadband transmission characteristics of overhead high-voltage power line communication channels,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 36, pp. 373–398, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  2. A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Broadband transmission and statistical performance properties of overhead high-voltage transmission networks,” Journal of Computer Networks and Commun, vol. 2012, Article ID 875632, 16 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Towards modal integration of overhead and underground low-voltage and medium-voltage power line communication channels in the smart grid landscape: model expansion, broadband signal transmission characteristics, and statistical performance metrics (invited paper),” ISRN Signal Processing, vol. 2012, Article ID 121628, 17 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. OPERA1, “D44: Report presenting the architecture of plc system, the electricity network topologies, the operating modes and the equipment over which PLC access system will be installed,” IST Integrated Project 507667, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  5. N. Pavlidou, A. J. Han Vinck, J. Yazdani, and B. Honary, “Power line communications: state of the art and future trends,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 34–40, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. N. S. Prasanna, A. Lakshmi, S. Sumanth, V. Simha, J. Bapat, and G. Koomullil, “Data communication over the smart grid,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Power Line Communications and its Applications (ISPLC '09), pp. 273–279, Dresden, Germany, April 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. NATO, “HF Interference, Procedures and Tools (Interférences HF, procédures et outils) Final Report of NATO RTO Information Systems Technology,” Tech. Rep. RTO-TR-ISTR-050, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. P. Anastasopoulos, A. C. Voulkidis, A. V. Vasilakos, and P. G. Cottis, “A secure network management protocol for SmartGrid BPL networks: design, implementation and experimental results,” Computer Communications, vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 4333–4342, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Pighi and R. Raheli, “On multicarrier signal transmission for high-voltage power lines,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC '05), pp. 32–36, April 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. DLC+VIT4IP, D1.2: Overall system architecture design DLC system architecture. FP7 Integrated Project No 247750, Jun. 2010.
  11. K. Dostert, Powerline Communications, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2001.
  12. N. Suljanović, A. Mujčić, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “Computation of high-frequency and time characteristics of corona noise on HV power line,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 71–79, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. Suljanović, A. Mujčić, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “Integrated communication model of the HV power-line channel,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symppsium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications, pp. 79–84, Zaragoza, Spain, 2004.
  14. N. Suljanović, A. Mujčić, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “Approximate computation of high-frequency characteristics for power line with horizontal disposition and middle-phase to ground coupling,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. U. A. Bakshi and M. V. Bakshi, Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Technical Publications Pune, Pune, India, 2001.
  16. J. C. de Sosa, Analysis and Design of High-Voltage Transmission Lines, iUniverse Incorporated, Bloomington, Ind, USA, 2010.
  17. N. M. Moyo, N. B. Ijumba, and A. C. Britten, “Investigations on the noise generation phenomena in the PLC system of a long HVDC line,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Power System Technology, pp. 953–957, Kunming, China, October 2002.
  18. N. Suljanović, A. Mujčić, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “Corona noise characteristics in high voltage PLC channel,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, pp. 1036–1039, Maribor, Slovenia, December 2003. View at Scopus
  19. A. Mujčić, N. Suljanović, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “Design of channel coding methods in HV PLC communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications, pp. 379–384, Zaragoza, Spain, 2004.
  20. A. Mujčić, N. Suljanović, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “High-voltage PLC roles in packet-switching networks of power utilities,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC '07), pp. 204–209, Pisa, Italy, March 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Transmission characteristics of overhead medium-voltage power-line communication channels,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1164–1173, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Capacity of overhead medium voltage power line communication channels,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 723–733, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Broadband transmission via underground medium-voltage power lines—part I: transmission characteristics,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2414–2424, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. G. Lazaropoulos and P. G. Cottis, “Broadband transmission via underground medium-voltage power lines—part II: capacity,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 2425–2434, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. G. Lazaropoulos, “Towards broadband over power lines systems integration: transmission characteristics of underground low-voltage distribution power lines,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 39, pp. 89–114, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  26. M. Gebhardt, F. Weinmann, and K. Dostert, “Physical and regulatory constraints for communication over the power supply grid,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 84–90, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. S. Henry, “Interference characteristics of broadband power line communication systems using aerial medium voltage wires,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 92–98, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Liu and L. J. Greenstein, “Emission characteristics and interference constraint of overhead medium-voltage Broadband Power Line (BPL) systems,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM '08), pp. 2921–2925, December 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Götz, M. Rapp, and K. Dostert, “Power line channel characteristics and their effect on communication system design,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 78–86, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. Fenton and P. Brown, “Some aspects of benchmarking high frequency radiated emissions from wireline communications systems in the near and far fields,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications, pp. 161–167, Malmö, Sweden, 2001.
  31. D. Fenton and P. Brown, “Modelling cumulative high frequency radiated interference from power line communication systems,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Athens, Greece, 2002.
  32. M. Zimmermann and K. Dostert, “A multipath model for the powerline channel,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 553–559, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Galli and O. Logvinov, “Recent developments in the standardization of power line communications within the IEEE,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 64–71, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. M. Tonello and F. Pecile, “Efficient architectures for multiuser FMT systems and application to power line communications,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1275–1279, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F. Versolatto and A. M. Tonello, “An MTL theory approach for the simulation of MIMO power-line communication channels,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1710–1717, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Sartenaer, Multiuser communications over frequency selective wired channels and applications to the powerline access network [Ph.D. dissertation], Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 2004.
  37. S. Galli, A. Scaglione, and Z. Wang, “For the grid and through the grid: the role of power line communications in the smart grid,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 998–1027, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. Amirshahi and M. Kavehrad, “High-frequency characteristics of overhead multiconductor power lines for broadband communications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1292–1302, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Calliacoudas and F. Issa, “Multiconductor transmission lines and cables solver, an efficient simulation tool for plc channel networks development,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Athens, Greece, 2002.
  40. S. Galli and T. C. Banwell, “A deterministic frequency-domain model for the indoor power line transfer function,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1304–1315, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Galli and T. Banwell, “A novel approach to the modeling of the indoor power line channel—part II: transfer function and its properties,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1869–1878, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. Sartenaer and P. Delogne, “Deterministic modeling of the (shielded) outdoor power line channel based on the Multiconductor Transmission Line equations,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1277–1290, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. Sartenaer and P. Delogne, “Powerline cables modelling for broadband communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Power Line Communications and Its Applications, pp. 331–337, Malmö, Sweden, April 2001.
  44. C. R. Paul, Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  45. J. A. B. Faria, Multiconductor Transmission-Line Structures: Modal Analysis Techniques, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  46. A. Pérez, A. M. Sánchez, J. R. Regué et al., “Circuital and modal characterization of the power-line network in the PLC band,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1182–1189, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Meng, S. Chen, Y. L. Guan et al., “Modeling of transfer characteristics for the broadband power line communication channel,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1057–1064, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. Amirshahi, Broadband access and home networking through powerline networks [Ph.D. dissertation], Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa, USA, 2006.
  49. J. Kabouris and G. C. Contaxis, “Electrical network optimization,” in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), vol. 2 of Exergy, Energy System Analysis and Optimization, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  50. J. Kuffel, E. Kuffel, and W. S. Zaengl, High-Voltage Engineering Fundamentals, Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn, UK, 2001.
  51. N. Suljanović, A. Mujčić, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “High-frequency characteristics of high-voltage power line,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer as a Tool, pp. 310–314, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2003.
  52. A. Mujčić, N. Suljanović, M. Zajc, and J. F. Tasič, “Influence of data frame duration on performance of BITCM system over HV power line,” in Proceedings of the Joint 1st Workshop on Mobile Future and Symposium on Trends in Communications, pp. 150–153, Bratislava, Slovakia, October 2004. View at Scopus
  53. W. De Villiers, J. H. Cloete, and R. Herman, “The feasibility of ampacity control on HV transmission lines using the PLC system,” in Proceedings of the 6th AFRICON Conference in Africa-Electrotechnological Services For Africa, pp. 865–870, George, South Africa, October 2002. View at Scopus
  54. M. Zajc, N. Suljanović, A. Mujčić, and J. F. Tasič, “Frequency characteristics measurement of overhead high-voltage power-line in low radio-frequency range,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 2142–2149, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Z. A. Ab Kadir, J. Sardi, W. F. Wan Ahmad, H. Hizam, and J. Jasni, “Evaluation of a 132 kV transmission line performance via transient modelling approach,” European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 533–539, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. K. Z. Sahbudin, S. A. Fauzi, S. Hitam, and M. Mokhtar, “Investigation of electrical potential and electromagnetic field for overhead high voltage power lines in Malaysia,” Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 22, pp. 2862–2868, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), “Variation Orders in Transmission Projects of Tenaga Nasional Berhad,” Tech. Rep., Malaysia, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  58. M. D'Amore and M. S. Sarto, “A new formulation of lossy ground return parameters for transient analysis of multiconductor dissipative lines,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 303–309, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. P. Amirshahi and M. Kavehrad, “Medium voltage overhead power-line broadband communications; transmission capacity and electromagnetic interference,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC '05), pp. 2–6, April 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. D'Amore and M. S. Sarto, “Simulation models of a dissipative transmission line above a lossy ground for a wide-frequency range—part I: single conductor configuration,” IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 127–138, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. D'Amore and M. S. Sarto, “Simulation models of a dissipative transmission line above a lossy ground for a wide-frequency range—part II: multiconductor configuration,” IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 139–149, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. Anatory and N. Theethayi, “On the efficacy of using ground return in the broadband power-line communications—a transmission-line analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 132–139, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. R. Carson, “Wave propagation in overhead wires with ground return,” Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 5, pp. 539–554, 1926. View at Google Scholar
  64. H. Kikuchi, “Wave propagation along an infinite wire above ground at high frequencies,” Electrotechnical Journal of Japan, vol. 2, pp. 73–78, 1956. View at Google Scholar
  65. H. Kikuchi, “On the transition form a ground return circuit to a surface waveguide,” in Proceedings of the Congress on Ultrahigh Frequency Circuits Antennas, pp. 39–45, Paris, France, October 1957.
  66. F. Issa, D. Chaffanjon, E. P. de la Bâthie, and A. Pacaud, “An efficient tool for modal analysis transmission lines for PLC networks development,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Power Line Communications and Its Applications, Athens, Greece, 2002.
  67. W. de Villiers, J. H. Cloete, L. M. Wedepohl, and A. Burger, “Real-time sag monitoring system for high-voltage overhead transmission lines based on power-line carrier signal behavior,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 389–395, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. G. Lodwig and C. C. Schuetz, “Coupling to control cables in HV substations,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, pp. 249–253, Montreal, Canada, August 2001. View at Scopus
  69. D. Anastasiadou and T. Antonakopoulos, “Multipath characterization of indoor power-line networks,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 90–99, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. Barmada, A. Musolino, and M. Raugi, “Innovative model for time-varying power line communication channel response evaluation,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1317–1325, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. A. Dobrowolski, Microwave Network Design Using the Scattering Matrix, Artech House, Norwood, Mass, USA, 2010.
  72. R. Mavaddat, Network Scattering Parameters. Advanced Series in Circuits and Systems, World Scientific Publishing Company, River Edge, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 1996.
  73. G. Gonzalez, Microwave Transistor Amplifiers: Analysis and Design, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 1996.
  74. S. Galli, A. Scaglione, and K. Dostert, “Broadband is power: internet access through the power line network,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 82–83, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. H. A. Latchman and L. W. Yonge, “Power line local area networking,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 32–33, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. E. Fortunato, A. Garibbo, and L. Petrolino, “An experimental system for digital power line communications over high voltage electric power lines-field trials and obtained results,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium Power Line Communications and Its Applications, pp. 26–31, Kyoto, Japan, 2003.
  77. J. Anatory, N. Theethayi, and R. Thottappillil, “Power-line communication channel model for interconnected networks—part II: multiconductor system,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 124–128, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. Philipps, “Modelling of powerline communications channels,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications, pp. 14–21, Lancaster, UK, 1999.
  79. J. Anatory, N. Theethayi, R. Thottappillil, M. M. Kissaka, and N. H. Mvungi, “The influence of load impedance, line length, and branches on underground cable power-line communications (PLC) systems,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 180–187, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Anatory, N. Theethayi, R. Thottappillil, M. Kissaka, and N. Mvungi, “The effects of load impedance, line length, and branches in typical low-voltage channels of the BPLC systems of developing countries: transmission-line analyses,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 621–629, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. OPERA1, D5: Pathloss as a function of frequency, distance and network topology for various LV and MV European powerline networks. IST Integrated Project No 507667, 2005.
  82. M. Kuhn, S. Berger, I. Hammerström, and A. Wittneben, “Power line enhanced cooperative wireless communications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1401–1410, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. R. Aquilué, I. Gutierrez, J. L. Pijoan, and G. Sánchez, “High-voltage multicarrier spread-spectrum system field test,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1112–1121, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. M. Sarafi, A. E. Drougas, and P. G. Cottis, “Cross-layer resource allocation in medium-voltage broadband over power-line networks,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 2247–2254.