Table of Contents
ISRN Inflammation
Volume 2012, Article ID 953461, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/953461
Review Article

Acute Phase Reactants as Novel Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease

1Department of Medicine, Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5E5
2Department of Pharmacology, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5E5
3Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8

Received 27 January 2012; Accepted 1 April 2012

Academic Editors: N. Ortego-Centeno and S. Pender

Copyright © 2012 M. S. Ahmed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Acute phase reaction is a systemic response which usually follows a physiological condition that takes place in the beginning of an inflammatory process. This physiological change usually lasts 1-2 days. However, the systemic acute phase response usually lasts longer. The aim of this systemic response is to restore homeostasis. These events are accompanied by upregulation of some proteins (positive acute phase reactants) and downregulation of others (negative acute phase reactants) during inflammatory reactions. Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by the elevation of several positive acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell count, secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase 2-II (sPLA2-II), ferritin, and ceruloplasmin. Cardiovascular disease is also accompanied by the reduction of negative acute phase reactants such as albumin, transferrin, transthyretin, retinol-binding protein, antithrombin, and transcortin. In this paper, we will be discussing the biological activity and diagnostic and prognostic values of acute phase reactants with cardiovascular importance. The potential therapeutic targets of these reactants will be also discussed.