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Figure 4: Impacts of selective logging and mangrove reclamation in the Urabá Gulf. Exploitation of mangrove wood (a–e). Mangrove reclamation for rural low-density housing (f-g). Mangrove conversion to pastures (h–j). Examples of cryptic ecological degradation (k-l). Extraction of red mangrove (R. mangle) poles (a-b) and planks from a large black mangrove (A. germinans). Artisan ovens (d) for burning mangrove charcoal. Each sack of charcoal required felling 10–20 trees; this pile nearly exploited 200 trees, equaling one hectare from Punta Yarumal (e). Recent mangrove reclamation for rural settlement, noting the deadwood left in place (f). Reclaimed periurban mangrove showing abundant resprouting (g). Examples of mangrove clear cutting and digging desiccation drainages (H) for establishing active pastures (i); note the few standing black mangrove trees. Black mangrove stand with a cleared understory for cattle ranching (note the fencing) (j). White mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) resprouting in a cleared area (k). Introgression by Acrostichum aureum (l). Photos: E. A. Estrada and A. Taborda.