Figure 1: Schematic diagram of immunopathology of TB. After inhalation of MTB, the immune system cells (CD4, CD8, DCs, and Th17) were activated. By these T cells, Th1 cytokines were released. In next steps by involvements of released mediators especially IFN-γ, lungs macrophages were activated. After activation of macrophages by MTB or cytokines, inflammatory mediators such as IL-12 and TNF-α or inflammasome mediators such as IL-1β via TLRs or inflammsome signal transduction pathways were released. Besides of activation, macrophages underwent to the apoptosis processing which is described as a main host protection strategy against the TB infection. Abbreviations used are: MTB; mycobacterium tuberculosis, TLR; toll-like receptors.