Table of Contents
ISRN Rehabilitation
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 971328, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/971328
Clinical Study

Exploring the Causes of Neck Pain and Disability as Perceived by Those Who Experience the Condition: A Mixed-Methods Study

School of Physical Therapy, Western University, 1201 Western Road, London, ON, Canada N6G 1A1

Received 21 August 2012; Accepted 14 October 2012

Academic Editors: M. P. Galea and S. May

Copyright © 2012 David M. Walton et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Côté, V. Kristman, M. Vidmar et al., “The prevalence and incidence of work absenteeism involving neck pain: a cohort of Ontario lost-time claimants,” Spine, vol. 33, supplement 4, pp. S192–S198, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. R. Croft, M. Lewis, A. C. Papageorgiou et al., “Risk factors for neck pain: a longitudinal study in the general population,” Pain, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 317–325, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Guzman, E. L. Hurwitz, L. J. Carroll et al., “A new conceptual model of neck pain: linking onset, course, and care: the Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders,” Spine, vol. 33, supplement 4, pp. S14–S23, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. R. Kaale, J. Krakenes, G. Albrektsen, and K. Wester, “Whiplash-associated disorders impairment rating: neck disability index score according to severity of MRI findings of ligaments and membranes in the upper cervical spine,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Barnsley, S. M. Lord, B. J. Wallis, N. Bogduk, and M. J. Bolesta, “The prevalence of chronic cervical zygapophysial joint pain after whiplash,” Spine, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. J. L. Sullivan, E. Hall, R. Bartolacci, M. E. Sullivan, and H. Adams, “Perceived cognitive deficits, emotional distress and disability following whiplash injury,” Pain Research and Management, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 120–126, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. J. Carroll, J. D. Cassidy, and P. Côté, “The role of pain coping strategies in prognosis after whiplash injury: passive coping predicts slowed recovery,” Pain, vol. 124, no. 1-2, pp. 18–26, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. A. Schmitt, N. L. Van Meeteren, A. De Wijer, F. R. Van Genderen, Y. D. Van Graaf, and P. J. Helders, “Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 231–238, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. D. Cassidy, J. C. Linda, P. Coté, M. Lemstra, A. Berglund, and Å. Nygren, “Effect of eliminating compensation for pain and suffering on the outcome of insurance claims for whiplash injury,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 342, no. 16, pp. 1179–1186, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. C. Swartzman, R. W. Teasell, A. P. Shapiro, and A. J. McDermid, “The effect of litigation status on adjustment to whiplash injury,” Spine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. M. Romano, J. A. Turner, M. P. Jensen et al., “Chronic pain patient-spouse behavioral interactions predict patient disability,” Pain, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 353–360, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Nordin, E. J. Carragee, S. Hogg-Johnson et al., “Assessment of neck pain and its associated disorders: results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders,” Spine, vol. 33, supplement 4, pp. S101–S122, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Blozik, D. Laptinskaya, C. Herrmann-Lingen et al., “Depression and anxiety as major determinants of neck pain: a cross-sectional study in general practice,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 10, article 13, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. J. L. Sullivan, P. Thibault, M. J. Simmonds, M. Milioto, A. P. Cantin, and A. M. Velly, “Pain, perceived injustice and the persistence of post-traumatic stress symptoms during the course of rehabilitation for whiplash injuries,” Pain, vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 325–331, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Leventhal, Y. Benyamini, and S. Brownlee, “Illness representations: theoretical foundations,” in Perceptions of Health and Illness, K. J. Petrie and J. A. Weinman, Eds., pp. 19–45, Harwood Academic, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  16. L. A. Phillips, H. Leventhal, and E. A. Leventhal, “Physicians' communication of the common-sense self-regulation model results in greater reported adherence than physicians' use of interpersonal skills,” British Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 244–257, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. E. Broadbent, K. J. Petrie, J. Main, and J. Weinman, “The brief illness perception questionnaire,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 631–637, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Weinman, K. J. Petrie, R. Moss-Morris, and R. Horne, “The illness perception questionnaire: a new method for assessing the cognitive representation of illness,” Psychology and Health, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 431–445, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Vernon and S. Mior, “The neck disability index: a study of reliability and validity,” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 409–415, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. J. L. Sullivan, S. R. Bishop, and J. Pivik, “The Pain Catastrophizing Scale: development and validation,” Psychological Assessment, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 524–532, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. S. Zigmond and R. P. Snaith, “The hospital anxiety and depression scale,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 361–370, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. W. S. Vlaeyen, A. M. J. Kole-Snijders, R. G. B. Boeren, and H. Van Eek, “Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance,” Pain, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 363–372, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. F. Spadoni, P. W. Stratford, P. E. Solomon, and L. R. Wishart, “The evaluation of change in pain intensity: a comparison of the P4 and single-item numeric pain rating scales,” Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 187–193, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Vernon, “The neck disability index: state-of-the-art, 1991–2008,” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 491–502, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. C. MacDermid, D. M. Walton, S. Avery et al., “Measurement properties of the neck disability index: a systematic review,” Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 400–417, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Walton and J. Elliott, “A higher-order analysis supports use of the tampa scale of kinesiophobia 11-item version in people with neck pain,” Physical Therapy. In press.
  27. D. M. Walton, T. H. Wideman, and M. J. Sullivan, “A Rasch analysis of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale supports its use an interval-level measure,” The Clinical Journal of Pain. In press.
  28. G. Clementz, B. Borsbo, and C. Norrbrink, “Burnout in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders,” International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. In press.
  29. E. P. Cobo, M. E. P. Mesquida, E. P. Fanegas et al., “What factors have influence on persistence of neck pain after a whiplash?” Spine, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. E338–E343, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. H. Dominick, F. M. Blyth, and M. K. Nicholas, “Unpacking the burden: understanding the relationships between chronic pain and comorbidity in the general population,” Pain, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 293–304, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  31. A. D. Wasan, N. K. Anderson, and D. B. Giddon, “Differences in pain, psychological symptoms, and gender distribution among patients with left- vs right-sided chronic spinal pain,” Pain Medicine, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1373–1380, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. M. Walton, J. C. Macdermid, W. Nielson, R. W. Teasell, M. Chiasson, and L. Brown, “Reliability, standard error, and minimum detectable change of clinical pressure pain threshold testing in people with and without acute neck pain,” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 644–650, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  33. M. Sandelowski, “What's in a name? Qualitative description revisited,” Research in Nursing and Health, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 77–84, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Delon and B. Mackinnon, “Alberta's systems approach to chronic disease management and prevention utilizing the expanded chronic care model,” Healthcare Quarterly, vol. 13, pp. 98–104, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. H. Robinson, L. C. Callister, J. A. Berry, and K. A. Dearing, “Patient-centered care and adherence: definitions and applications to improve outcomes,” Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 600–607, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Wermeling, M. Scherer, and W. Himmel, “GPs' experiences of managing non-specific neck pain—a qualitative study,” Family Practice, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 300–306, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. X. Luo, C. L. Edwards, W. Richardson, and L. Hey, “Relationships of clinical, psychologic, and individual factors with the functional status of neck pain patients,” Value in Health, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 61–69, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Nieto, J. Miró, A. Huguet, and C. Saldaña, “Are coping and catastrophising independently related to disability and depression in patients with whiplash associated disorders?” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 389–398, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. P. Thompson, M. Urmston, J. A. Oldham, and S. R. Woby, “The association between cognitive factors, pain and disability in patients with idiopathic chronic neck pain,” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 32, no. 21, pp. 1758–1767, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Scott, G. Jull, and M. Sterling, “Widespread sensory hypersensitivity is a feature of chronic whiplash-associated disorder but not chronic idiopathic neck pain,” Clinical Journal of Pain, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 175–181, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. Piñerua-Shuhaibar, N. Villalobos, N. Delgado, M. A. Rubio, and H. Suarez-Roca, “Enhanced central thermal nociception in mildly depressed nonpatients and transiently sad healthy subjects,” Journal of Pain, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 360–369, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Sjors, B. Larsson, A. L. Persson, and B. Gerdle, “An increased response to experimental muscle pain is related to psychological status in women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 12, article 230, 2011. View at Google Scholar