Figure 1: (a) Geographical locations of German cave bear sites, both cave den and open air sites, including Sophie’s Cave in Bavaria, southern Germany. (b) Cave map showing cave bear, hyena, and wolf den areas during the early/middle Late Pleistocene in Upper Franconia (Bavaria, Germany). (c) The present-day entrance of Sophie’s Cave. (d) Speleothems in the Millionary Hall of Sophie’s Cave. (e) Two cave bear skulls (small types: Ursus spelaeus subsp.) fixed in the speleothem layer of the Reindeer Hall of the Sophie’s Cave (on place).