Table of Contents
ISRN Biomathematics
Volume 2013, Article ID 159170, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/159170
Review Article

Macroscopic Modelling of Environmental Influence on Growth and Form of Sponges and Corals Using the Accretive Growth Model

Section Computational Science, Faculty of Science, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Received 10 December 2012; Accepted 17 January 2013

Academic Editors: M. Glavinovic, S.-C. Ngan, and A. A. Polezhaev

Copyright © 2013 Jaap A. Kaandorp. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. J. Barnes, “Growth in colonial scleractinians,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 23, pp. 280–298, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  2. R. R. Graus and I. G. Macintyre, “Variation in growth forms of the reef coral Montastrea annularis (Ellis and Solander): a quantitative evaluation of growth response to light distribution using computer simulation,” Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, vol. 12, pp. 441–464, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. W. Stearn and R. Riding, “Forms of the hydrozoan Millepora on a recent coral reef,” Lethaia, vol. 6, pp. 187–200, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  4. W. H. de Weerdt, “Transplantation experiments with Caribbean Millepora species (Hydrozoa, Coelenterata), including some ecological observations on growth forms,” Bijdr Dierk, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  5. M. P. Lesser, V. M. Weis, M. R. Patterson, and P. L. Jokiel, “Effects of morphology and water motion on carbon delivery and productivity in the reef coral, Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus): diffusion barriers, inorganic carbon limitation, and biochemical plasticity,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 178, no. 2, pp. 153–179, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. Chindapol, J. A. Kaandorp, C. Cronemberger, T. Mass, and A. Genin, “Modelling growth and form of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora verrucosa and the influence of hydrodynamics,” Plos Computational Biology, vol. 9, no. 1, Article ID 100284, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  7. K. P. Sebens, J. Witting, and B. Helmuth, “Effects of water flow and branch spacing on particle capture by the reef coral Madracis mirabills (Duchassaing and Michelotti),” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 211, no. 1, pp. 1–28, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. V. Filatov, J. A. Kaandorp, M. Postma et al., “A comparison between coral colonies from the Madracis genus and simulated forms,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 277, pp. 3555–3561, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  9. B. Helmuth and K. Sebens, “The influence of colony morphology and orientation to flow on particle capture by the scleractinian coral Agaricia agaricites (Linnaeus),” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 165, no. 2, pp. 251–278, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Jebram, “Influences of the food on the colony forms of Electra pilosa (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata),” Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, vol. 108, pp. 1–14, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  11. D. W. J. Bosence, “Ecological studies on two unattached coralline algae from western Ireland,” Palaeontology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 365–395, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. A. Kaandorp, “Modelling growth forms of the sponge Haliclona oculata (Porifera, Demospongiae) using fractal techniques,” Marine Biology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 203–215, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. A. Kaandorp and M. J. de Kluijver, “Verification of fractal growth models of the sponge Haliclona oculata (Porifera) with transplantation experiments,” Marine Biology, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 133–143, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. A. Todd, “Morphological plasticity in scleractinian corals,” Biological Reviews, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 315–337, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. J. Kruszyński, J. A. Kaandorp, and R. van Liere, “A computational method for quantifying morphological variation in scleractinian corals,” Coral Reefs, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 831–840, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. L. Bookstein, Morphometric Tools for Landmark Data: Geometry and Biology, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1991.
  17. D. Stoyan and F. L. Bookstein, Morphometric Tools for Landmark Data. Geometry and Biology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1993.
  18. J. L. Harper, B. R. Rosen, and J. White, The Growth and Form of Modular Organisms, The Royal Society London, London, UK, 1986.
  19. J. B. C. Jackson, L. W. Bass, and R. E. Cock, Population Biology and Evolution of Clonal Organisms, Yale University Press, London, UK, 1985.
  20. J. A. Sánchez and H. R. Lasker, “Patterns of morphological integration in marine modular organisms: supra-module organization in branching octocoral colonies,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 270, no. 1528, pp. 2039–2044, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. A. Sánchez, H. R. Lasker, E. G. Nepomuceno, J. D. Sánchez, and M. J. Woldenberg, “Branching and self-organization in marine modular colonial organisms: a model,” The American Naturalist, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. E24–E39, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Vuorisalo and J. Tuomi, “Unitary and modular organisms: criteria for ecological division,” Oikos, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 382–385, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  23. K. Kim and H. R. Lasker, “Allometry of resource capture in colonial cnidarians and constraints on modular growth,” Functional Ecology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 646–654, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. E. N. Veron and M. Pichon, Scleractinia of Eastern Australia Part Families Thamnasteriidae, Astrocoeniidae, Pocilloporidae, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia, 1976.
  25. J. A. Kaandorp, E. A. Koopman, P. M. A. Sloot, R. P. M. Bak, M. J. A. Vermeij, and L. E. H. Lampmann, “Simulation and analysis of flow patterns around the scleractinian coral Madracis mirabilis (Duchassaing and Michelotti),” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 358, no. 1437, pp. 1551–1557, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. A. Chamberlain and R. R. Graus, “Water flow and hydromechanical adaptations of branched reef corals,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 25, pp. 112–125, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  27. K. R. N. Anthony, “Coral suspension feeding on fine particulate matter,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 232, pp. 85–106, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  28. M. J. Atkinson and R. W. Bilger, “Effects of water velocity on phosphate uptake in coral reef-flat communities,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 273–279, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. I. M. Thomas and M. J. Atkinson, “Ammonium uptake by coral reefs: effects of water velocity and surface roughness on mass transfer,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 81–88, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. D. Badgley, F. Lipschultz, and K. P. Sebens, “Nitrate uptake by the reef coral Diploria strigosa: effects of concentration, water flow, and irradiance,” Marine Biology, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 327–338, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Riedl, “Water movement-animal,” in Marine Ecology, O. Kinne, Ed., vol. 1, pp. 1123–1156, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  32. K. P. Sebens and A. S. Johnson, “Effects of water movement on prey capture and distribution of reef corals,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 226, no. 2, pp. 91–101, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W. C. Dennison and D. J. Barnes, “Effect of water motion on coral photosynthesis and calcification,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 115, pp. 67–77, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. R. Patterson, K. P. Sebens, and R. R. Olson, “In situ measurements of flow effects on primary production and dark respiration in reef corals,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 936–948, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y. I. Sorokin, Coral Reef Ecology, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 1993.
  36. F. Marubini and B. Thake, “Bicarbonate addition promotes coral growth,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 44, no. 3 I, pp. 716–720, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Marubini, C. Ferrier-Pages, and J. P. Cuif, “Suppression of skeletal growth in scleractinian corals by decreasing ambient carbonate-ion concentration: a cross-family comparison,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 270, no. 1511, pp. 179–184, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. A. Reidenbach, J. R. Koseff, S. G. Monismith, J. V. Steinbuck, and A. Genin, “The effects of waves and morphology on mass transfer within branched reef corals,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 1134–1141, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Chang, C. Elkins, M. Alley, J. Eaton, and S. Monismith, “Flow inside a coral colony measured using magnetic resonance velocimetry,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1819–1827, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. G. Monismith, “Hydrodynamics of coral reefs,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 39, pp. 37–55, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  41. P. L. Jokiel, “Ocean acidification and control of reef coral calcification by boundary layer limitation of proton flux,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 639–657, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. P. L. Jokiel, “The reef coral two compartment proton flux model: a new approach relating tissue-level physiological processes to gross corallum morphology,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 409, pp. 1–12, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  43. T. A. McConnaughey, J. Burdett, J. F. Whelan, and C. K. Paull, “Carbon isotopes in biological carbonates: respiration and photosynthesis,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 611–622, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. M. Heikoop, J. J. Dunn, M. J. Risk, H. P. Schwarcz, T. A. McConnaughey, and I. M. Sandeman, “Separation of kinetic and metabolic isotope effects in carbon-13 records preserved in reef coral skeletons,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 975–987, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. Maier, J. Pätzold, and R. P. M. Bak, “The skeletal isotopic composition as an indicator of ecological and physiological plasticity in the coral genus Madracis,” Coral Reefs, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 370–380, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. Mass and A. Genin, “Environmental versus intrinsic determination of colony symmetry in the coral Pocillopora verrucosa,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 369, pp. 131–137, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. Mass, A. Genin, U. Shavit, M. Grinstein, and D. Tchernov, “Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 2527–2531, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. T. Mass, I. Brickner, E. Hendy, and A. Genin, “Enduring physiological and reproductive benefits of enhanced flow for a stony coral,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 56, pp. 2176–2188, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  49. D. R. Webster and M. J. Weissburg, “The hydrodynamics of chemical cues among aquatic organisms,” Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 41, pp. 73–90, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. F. Bruno and P. J. Edmunds, “Metabolic consequences of phenotypic plasticity in the coral Madracis mirabilis (Duchassaing and Michelotti): the effect of morphology and water flow on aggregate respiration,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 229, no. 2, pp. 187–195, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Muko, K. Kawasaki, K. Sakai, F. Takasu, and N. Shigesada, “Morphological plasticity in the coral Porites sillimaniani and its adaptive significance,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 225–239, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. A. Kaandorp, “A formal description of radiate accretive growth,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 149–161, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. A. Kaandorp, Fractal Modelling: Growth and Form in Biology, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1994.
  54. J. A. Kaandorp, “Morphological analysis of growth forms of branching marine sessile organisms along environmental gradients,” Marine Biology, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 295–306, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. P. Brien, C. Lévi, M. Sara, O. Tuzet, and J. Vacelet, Traité de Zoologie: Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie, Tome III Spongiares, chapter 1, Paris, France, 1973.
  56. J. A. Kaandorp and J. E. Kuebler, The Algorithmic Beauty of Seaweeds, Sponges and Corals, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2001.
  57. W. H. de Weerdt, “A systematic revision of the north-eastern Atlantic shallow-water Haplosclerida (Porifera, Demospongiae), part II: Chalinidae,” Beaufortia, vol. 36, pp. 81–165, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  58. S. Vogel, “Current-induced flow through the sponge, Halichondria,” Biological Bulletin, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 443–456, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. P. Grotzinger and D. H. Rothman, “An abiotic model for stromatolite morphogenesis,” Nature, vol. 383, no. 6599, pp. 423–425, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. R. Walter, Stromatolites, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1976.
  61. J. A. Kaandorp, J. G. Blom, J. Verhoef, M. Filatov, M. Postma, and W. E. G. Müller, “Modelling genetic regulation of growth and form in a branching sponge,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 275, pp. 2569–2577, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  62. J. A. Kaandorp, C. P. Lowe, D. Frenkel, and P. M. A. Sloot, “Effect of nutrient diffusion and flow on coral morphology,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 2328–2331, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. A. Kaandorp, P. M. A. Sloot, R. M. H. Merks, R. P. M. Bak, M. J. A. Vermeij, and C. Maier, “Morphogenesis of the branching reef coral Madracis mirabilis,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 272, pp. 127–133, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  64. R. M. H. Merks, A. G. Hoekstra, J. A. Kaandorp, and P. M. A. Sloot, “Polyp oriented modelling of coral growth,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 228, no. 4, pp. 559–576, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. W. E. Lorensen and H. E. Cline, “Marching cubes: a high resolution 3D surface construction algorithm,” ACM Computer Graphics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 163–169, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. A. Kaandorp and P. M. A. Sloot, “Morphological models of radiate accretive growth and the influence of hydrodynamics,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 209, no. 3, pp. 257–274, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. A. Kaandorp, M. Filatov, and N. Chindapol, “Simulating and quantifying the environmental influence on coral growth and form,” in Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition, Z. Dubinsky and N. Stambler, Eds., part 3, pp. 177–185, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  68. W. M. Darke and D. J. Barnes, “Growth trajectories of corallites and ages of polyps in massive colonies of reef-building corals of the genus Porites,” Marine Biology, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 321–326, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Le Tissier, B. Clayton, B. E. Brown, and P. Spencer Davies, “Skeletal correlates of coral density banding and an evaluation of radiography as used in scelerochronology,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 110, pp. 29–44, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  70. W. Schroeder, K. Martin, and B. Lorensen, The Visualization Toolkit: An Object-Oriented Approach To 3D Graphics, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 1997.
  71. O. V. Kaluzhnaya, S. I. Belikov, H. C. Schrِder et al., “Dynamics of skeletal formation in the Lake Baikal sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Part I. Biological and biochemical studies,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 92, pp. 128–133, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  72. O. V. Kaluzhnaya, S. I. Belikov, H. C. Schr öder et al., “Dynamics of skeletal formation in the Lake Baikal sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Part II. Molecular biological studies,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 92, pp. 134–138, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  73. F. Wiedenmayer, Shallow-Water Sponges of the Western Bahamas, Birkhäuser, Basel, Switzerland, 1977.
  74. C. P. Lowe and D. Frenkel, “The super long-time decay of velocity fluctuations in a two-dimensional fluid,” Physica A, vol. 220, no. 3-4, pp. 251–260, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. M. H. Merks, A. G. Hoekstra, and P. M. A. Sloot, “The moment propagation method for advection-diffusion in the Lattice Boltzmann method: validation and Péclet number limits,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 563–576, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. A. J. C. Ladd, “Numerical simulations of particulate suspensions via a discretized Boltzmann equation. Part 1. Theoretical foundation,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 271, pp. 285–309, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. J. C. Ladd, “Numerical simulations of particulate suspensions via a discretized Boltzmann equation. Part 2. Numerical results,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, vol. 271, pp. 311–339, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. B. Chopard and M. Droz, Cellular Automata Modelling of Physical Systems, Cambridge Univerity Press, 1998.
  79. S. Succi, The Lattice Boltzmann Equation: for Fluid Dynamics and Beyond, Oxford University Press, 2001.
  80. A. Koponen, D. Kandhai, E. Hellén et al., “Permeability of three-dimensional random fiber webs,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 716–719, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. D. Kandhai, D. Hlushkou, A. G. Hoekstra, P. M. A. Sloot, H. Van As, and U. Tallarek, “Influence of stagnant zones on transient and asymptotic dispersion in macroscopically homogeneous porous media,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 88, no. 23, Article ID 234501, 4 pages, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. COMSOL Multiphysics, “3.5a. COMSOL AB,” Palo Alto, Calif, USA, 2009, http://www.comsol.com/.
  83. R. Merks, A. Hoekstra, J. Kaandorp, and P. Sloot, “Models of coral growth: spontaneous branching, compactification and the Laplacian growth assumption,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 224, no. 2, pp. 153–166, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. Verhoef, Morph space exploration of the accretive growth model [M.S. thesis], University of Amsterdam, 2006.
  85. J. Huang, R. Yagel, V. Filippov, and Y. Kurzion, “An accurate method for voxelizing polygon meshes,” in Proceedings of the ACE/IEEE Symposium on Volume Visualization, pp. 119–126, 1998.
  86. A. Kaufman, “Efficient algorithms for scan-converting 3D polygons,” Computers and Graphics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 213–219, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. Kaufman, “Efficient algorithms for 3D scan-conversion of parametric curves, surfaces and volumes,” Computer Graphics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 269–277, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  88. B. E. Chalker and D. L. Taylor, “Light-enhanced calcification, and the role of oxidative phosphorylation in calcification of the coral Acropora cervicornis,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, vol. 190, no. 1100, pp. 323–331, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. B. Rinkevich and Y. Loya, “Does light enhance calcification in hermatypic corals?” Marine Biology, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. P. Gairuso, D. Allemand, and M. Frankignoulle, “Photosynthesis and calcification at cellular, organismal and community levels in coral reefs: a review on interactions and control by carbonate chemistry,” American Zoologist, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 160–183, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. D. Allemand, C. Ferrier-Pagès, C. Furla et al., “Biomineralisation in reef-building corals: from molecular mechanisms to environmental control,” Comptes Rendus Palevol, vol. 3, no. 6-7, pp. 453–467, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. F. A. Al-Horani, S. M. Al-Moghrabi, and D. de Beer, “The mechanism of calcification and its relation to photosynthesis and respiration in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis,” Marine Biology, vol. 142, no. 3, pp. 419–426, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. F. A. Al-Horani, S. M. Al-Moghrabi, and D. de Beer, “Microsensor study of photosynthesis and calcification in the scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis: active internal carbon cycle,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. F. A. Al-Horani, E. Tambutte, and D. Allemand, “Dark calcification and the daily rhythm of calcification in the scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis,” Coral Reefs, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 531–538, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. Moya, S. Tambutté, E. Tambutté, D. Zoccola, N. Caminiti, and D. Allemand, “Study of calcification during a daily cycle of the coral Stylophora pistillata: implications for ‘light-enhanced calcification’,” The Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 209, no. 17, pp. 3413–3419, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. G. Le Pennec, S. Perovic, M. S. A. Ammar et al., “Cultivation of primmorphs from the marine sponge Suberites domuncula: morphogenetic potential of silicon and iron,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 93–108, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. B. Rinkevich and Y. Loya, “Oriented translocation of energy in grafted reef corals,” Coral Reefs, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 243–247, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. T. Adell, I. Nefkens, and W. E. G. Müller, “Polarity factor “Frizzled” in the demosponge Suberites domuncula: identification, expression and localization of the receptor in the epithelium/pinacoderm,” FEBS Letters, vol. 554, pp. 363–368, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  99. S. Perovic, H. C. Schrِder, S. Sudek et al., “Expression of one sponge Iroquois homeobox gene in primmorphs from Suberites domuncula during canal formation,” Evolution & Development, vol. 5, pp. 240–250, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  100. W. E. G. Müller, A. Krasko, G. Pennec et al., “Molecular mechanism of spicule formation in the demosponge Suberites domuncula: silicatein-collagen- myotrophin,” Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology, vol. 33, pp. 195–231, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  101. W. E. G. Müller, M. Wiens, T. Adell, V. Gamulin, H. C. Schröder, and I. M. Müller, “Bauplan of urmetazoa: basis for genetic complexity of metazoa,” International Review of Cytology, vol. 235, pp. 53–92, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  102. W. E. G. Müller, M. Binder, J. von Lintig et al., “Interaction of the retinoic acid signaling pathway with spicule formation in the marine sponge Suberites domuncula through activation of bone morphogenetic protein’’,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1810, pp. 1178–1194, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  103. H. C. Schröder, F. Natalio, I. Shukoor et al., “Apposition of silica lamellae during growth of spicules in the demosponge Suberites domuncula: biological/biochemical studies and chemical/biomimetical confirmation,” Journal of Structural Biology, vol. 159, no. 3, pp. 325–334, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. M. Wiens, S. I. Belikov, O. V. Kaluzhnaya et al., “Regional and modular expression of morphogenetic factors in the demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis,” Micron, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 447–460, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. A. Gierer and H. Meinhardt, “A theory of biological pattern formation,” Kybernetik, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 30–39, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. C. Zemlin, Rhytms and wave propogation in the heart [Ph.D. thesis], Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2002.