Table 2: History, gender, and educational implications for Canadian psychiatric mental health nursing

Author and datePurposeDesign/methodology/approachProvinceSample sizeFindings

Tipliski (2004) [23]How Canadian psychiatric nursing developed into two entirely different models?Historical analysis—case studies in the provinces of Ontario, Manitoba, and SaskatchewanOntario,
Manitoba, and Saskatchewan
Not applicable (NA)PMHN development can be understood through psychiatry’s authority in the context of the gender limitations traditionally imposed upon women and nurse leaders
Ontario nurse leaders took control of psychiatric nursing, whereas in Manitoba and Saskatchewan they did not

Dooley (2004) [24]Historical account of Manitoba’s distinct mental health nursingLabour history—historical analysis—oral testimony of Manitoba’s nursing graduates from the 1930sManitobaNAManitoba—distinct class of PMHN giving rise to the regional differences where psychiatric nursing education is not integrated into general nursing education

Hicks (2008) [25]Examination of factors that lead Manitoba to adopt the western style of PMHN and RPN classGenealogical analysis from archives, interviews, and secondary sourcesManitobaNARPN in Manitoba is a political, contingent development that will evolve

Hicks (2011) [27]Historical account of professionalization of Manitoba’s RPNsHistorical analysis from archives and secondary sourcesManitobaNARPN profession in Manitoba arose to fill inadequately staffed mental hospitals then developed into a specialized workforce

Boschma et al. (2005) [9]How gender shaped training, work opportunities, and professional identity of PMHN?Social history method of analysis—interviews with questionnaires of PMH nurses who practiced between 1939–1990Alberta34 women, 9 menAlberta’s PMHN professional identity shaped by gendered care ethic

Boschma (2012) [26] Exploration of how psychiatric nurses understand and create their role in AlbertaHistorical analysis, case study, and oral history interviewsAlbertaNAAlberta’s present community mental health service is evolved and transformed from the prior institutional practice