Table 3: Retrieved papers from PubMed database search are, grouped in accordance with bond strength (BS) tests, type of ceramics, surface treatment method (STM), resin cements and results for BS improvement.

Reference numberBS methodType of ceramicsSTMResin cementResults

[1]MTBSZirCAD and
50 µm Al2O3 AA + 2.6 nm ; 50 µm Al2O3 AA + 23 nm ; CoJetC and B cement 2.6 nm > CoJet =   23 nm > Ctrl

[3]ShearEmpress II,
and ZrO2
Flame treatment (2.5 s/cm2),
(5 s/cm2), and
(10 s/cm2) + silane.
Empress II- HF + silane
Variolink IIHF + silane yielded the best BS

[4, 5, 25] MTBSIn-
110 µm Al2O3 AA, CoJet, and Rocatec; all silanatedPanavia FCoJet = Rocatec > 110 µm Al2O3 AA

[8]ShearY-TZPHF; 50 µm Al2O3 AA; diamond abrasionEnforceAA > diamond abrasion > Ctrl > HF

[9]TBSGN-1 ceramic
70 µm Al2O3 AABistite II and Tokuso Ceramic Primer; Linkmax and GC Ceramic Primer; Rely-X ARC and Rely-X Ceramic Primer; Panavia F and Clearfil Ceramic Primer; Resicem and Shofu Porcelain Primer or AZ PrimerPrimer
enhanced BS except the AZ Primer

[10]MicroshearY-TZP53 µm Al2O3 AA; YAG laserVariolink II and Monobond-S;
NAC-100 and SCP-100
Variolink II: control yielded the best BS
NAC-100: AA = laser = ctrl

[11]ShearY-TZPSilica coating; 50 µm Al2O3 AA; MPS and/or 4-META silanesPanavia F and SuperBonderSuperBonder: MPS = 4-META
Panavia F: MPS > 4-META

[12]ShearY-TZPTBC + primersRely-X ARC, epricord opaque primer; AZ PrimerAll primers yelded BS

[13, 26]Micro
100 µm Al2O3 AA; HF glass pearlsPanavia F and Clearfil Porcelain BondIn Ceram: HF = AA > ctrl
Cercon: AA > Ctrl > HF

[17]ShearY-TZP53 µm Al2O3 AA; Er : YAG laser; primersCalibra, Panavia FAA + primers yelded high BS

[20]TBSY-TZPAA; silanated; silica coated; acrylized; MDP; polyacid-modified compositePanaviaMDP > acrylized > polyacid-modified composite > silica coated > silanated = AA

[21]ShearY-TZPAA + MDP silane; AA + silaneRely-X ARC, Panavia FMDP silane assured higher BS for both RCs

[22]MTBSY-TZP125 µm Al2O3 AA, TBCCalibra; Clearfil Esthetic; Rely-X UnicemClearfil Esthetic yelded the best BS

[23]ShearY-TZP125 µm Al2O3 AA, Clearfil silanes, MDP solution, and CoJetPanavia FCoJet + MDP + silane = CoJet + silane = CoJet > Ctrl = MDP + silane = silane

[27]ShearY-TZPMDP; zirconia primerClapearl DCMDP = zirconia primer = MDP + zirconia primer

Rely-X ARC, experimental resinOnly isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane does not improve BS

[33, 74] MTBSY-TZPSIE and zirconia primerPanavia FSIE + primer > Ctrl. SIE + primer decreased BS with aging

[35]TBS and ShearIn-CeramHF; CoJet; 25 µm Al2O3 AA. All silanatedZ-100 resin applied directly to ZrO2 surfaceCoJet > AA > HF

[37]MTBSIn-CeramHF; CoJet, Silane; Al2O3 AA.Resin blockCoJet + silane yelded the best BS

[38]ShearHF; 25 µm Al2O3 AA; bur grindingPanavia 21, Twinlook, and Super-bondGrinding + Superbond showed the best BS

[39]MTBSY-TZP125 µm Al2O3 AA, CoJetCalibra, Clearfil cement, and Rely-X UnicemPhosphate monomer-containing cement (Clearfil) > other RCs, irrespective of STMs

[40]ShearY-TZP50 µm Al2O3 AA; Korox; Rocatec; flame treatmentPanavia F No significant differences

[41, 42, 44, 46, 58]ShearY-TZPAl2O3 AAAlloy Primer; Super Bond
Monomer; Metal Primer II; Panavia F, Superbonder
Primers improve BS

[45]ShearY-TZPZirconia primer; zirconia primer heat treatment (45°C; 79°C; 100°C)Panavia FHeat treatment of zirconia
primer improved the early bond strength

[52]ShearY-TZPPlasma; silanized glass pearlsVariolink IIGlass pearls > Plasma

[57]TBSY-TZP50 µm Al2O3 AA; air-powder-water sprayVariolink II; Panavia F, HeliobondAA > air-powder-water spray

Nexus; Superbond;
Panavia 21; Panavia F; Rely-X Unicem
Panavia 21 yelded the best BS

[62]TBSY-TZPAA; AA + HF; silica coatingZ100AA = AA + HF > silica coating

[65]ShearY-TZP70 µm Al2O3 AA; SiC blastedZinc phosphate, glass ionomer, and Adhesive resinAdhesive resin yelded the best BS

[66]ShearDigizon-ASilica coating; 30 µm Al2O3 AA; silanizedPanavia EX; Panavia F 2.0; Rely-X Unicem; Bifix QM; Dual Cement; Duo Cement Plus; Multilink Automix; ParaCem; Rely-X ARC; Variolink Ultra; Variolink IIBifix QM + silica coating yelded the best BS

[67]ShearY-TZPRocatec; silanized (Espe Sil); Epricode; α-aluminaRely-X ARCThe silane, Espe Sil yelded the best BS

[69]ShearY-TZP110 µm Al2O3 AAFuji I; Ketac Cem Easymix; Fuji Plus; RelyX Luting; Principle; Ionotite F; Panavia F; Rely-X UnicemPanavia F = Principle > Fuji Plus= Rely-X Unicem > Rely-X Luting = Ketac Cem> FujiI > Ionotite F

[73]Pull outY-TZP110 µm Al2O3 AA; silanized glass pearlsZinc phosphate, Panavia 21, and Variolink IIGlass pearls > AA

[76]ShearY-TZP50 µm Al2O3 AABisCem; Rely-X Unicem; G-Cem; Maxcem; Clearfil SAAA > Ctrl. G-Cem + AA yielded the best BS

[77]ShearY-TZPAA; silica coating; diamond abrasion. HF; silane; zirconia primerResin cementsilicoated + silanated > diamond abrasion + zirconia primer >
AA + silanated > zirconia primer > AA + zirconia primer

[60]MTBSY-TZPSilica coating; MDP; silanePanavia FSilica coating + silane > silica coating + MDP = Ctrl

[71]ShearY-TZPAA; YAG laser-irradiated; glaze applied + HFClearfil Esthetic CementLaser irradiated > glaze applied + HF = AA = Ctrl

[75]ShearY-TZPCoJet; glaze + HF; glaze + CoJet. All silanizedPanavia FGlaze + HF > glaze + CoJet = CoJet

[72]ShearY-TZPAA; CoJet; Er : YAG laser; AA + Er : YAG laserRely-X U100, Clearfil Esthetic Cement, and Panavia FEr : YAG showed lower bond strengths irrespective of

[78]MTBSY-TZPTBC; TBC + zirconia primerClearfil Esthetic Cement and Panavia FTBC + zirconia primer > TBC

MTBS: microtensile bond strength; TBS: tensile bond strength; SIE: selective infiltration etching; AA: air-abrasion; Ctrl: control groups with no STM; RC: resin cement; HF: hydrofluoric acid etching; TBC: tribochemical treatment.