Table of Contents
ISRN Biodiversity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 187415, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/187415
Review Article

Ecological and Economic Importance of Bats (Order Chiroptera)

Department of Zoological Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Received 5 August 2013; Accepted 2 October 2013

Academic Editors: P. K. S. Shin and P. M. Vergara

Copyright © 2013 Mohammed Kasso and Mundanthra Balakrishnan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. M. Hutson, S. P. Mickleburgh, and P. A. Racey, Microchiropteran Bats: Global Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, IUCN/SSC chiroptera specialist group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 2001.
  2. G. Jones, D. Jacobs, T. H. Kunz, M. R. Wilig, and P. A. Racey, “Carpe Noctem: the importance of bats as bioindicators,” Endangered Species Research, vol. 8, pp. 3–115, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. H. Kunz, E. B. de Torrez, D. Bauer, T. Lobova, and T. H. Fleming, “Ecosystem services provided by bats,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1223, no. 1, pp. 1–38, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. B. Fenton, “Science and the conservation of bats: where to next?” Wildlife Society Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. P. Madej, L. Mikulova, A. Gorosova et al., “Skin structure and hair morphology of different body parts in the Common Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus),” Acta Zoologica, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 478–489, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  6. A. N. Makanya and J. P. Mortola, “The structural design of the bat wing web and its possible role in gas exchange,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 211, no. 6, pp. 687–697, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. S. Fujita and M. D. Tuttle, “Flying foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): threatened animals of key ecological and economic importance,” Conservation Biology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 455–463, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. L. P. Anthony and T. H. Kunz, “Feeding strategies of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) in southern New Hampshire,” Ecology, vol. 58, pp. 775–786, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  9. A. Kurta and J. O. Whitaker Jr., “Diet of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) on the northern edge of its range,” The American Midland Naturalist, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 280–286, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. J. Lacki, J. S. Johnson, L. E. Dodd, and M. D. Baker, “Prey consumption of insectivorous bats in coniferous forests of north-central Idaho,” Northwest Science, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 199–205, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Holderied, C. Korine, and T. Moritz, “Hemprich's long-eared bat (Otonycteris hemprichii) as a predator of scorpions: whispering echolocation, passive gleaning and prey selection,” Journal of Comparative Physiology A, vol. 197, no. 5, pp. 425–433, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Fukui, K. Okazaki, and K. Maeda, “Diet of three sympatric insectivorous bat species on Ishigaki Island, Japan,” Endangered Species Research, vol. 8, no. 1-2, pp. 117–128, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. H. Kunz, “Feeding ecology of a temperate insectivorous bat (Myotis velifer),” Ecology, vol. 55, pp. 693–711, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  14. T. H. Kunz, J. O. Whitaker, and M. D. Wadanoli, “Dietary energetics of the insectivorous Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) during pregnancy and lactation,” Oecologia, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 407–415, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. B. C. Hickey and M. B. Fenton, “Behavioural and thermoregulatory responses of female hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), to variations in prey availability,” Ecoscience, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 414–422, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. O. Whitaker, “Food of the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus from maternity colonies in Indiana and Illinois,” American Midland Naturalist, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 346–360, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. A. Coutts, M. B. Fenton, and E. Glen, “Food intake by captive Myotis lucifugus and Eptesicus fuscus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae),” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 54, pp. 985–990, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. Kurta, G. Bell, K. Nagy, and T. Kunz, “Energetics of pregnancy and lactation in free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus),” Physiological Zoology, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 804–818, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. O. Whitaker and P. Clem, “Food of the evening bat Nycticeius humeralis from Indiana,” The American Midland Naturalist, vol. 127, pp. 211–217, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  20. O. J. Schmitz and K. B. Suttle, “Effects of top predator species on direct and indirect interactions in a food web,” Ecology, vol. 82, no. 7, pp. 2072–2081, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. R. Speakman, “The impact of predation by birds on bat populations in the British Isles,” Mammal Review, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 123–142, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. B. Fenton, “Constraint and flexibility—bats as predators, bats as prey,” Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 67, pp. 277–289, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. J. Daniel and G. R. Williams, “A survey of the distribution, seasonal activity and roost sites of New Zealand bats,” New Zealand Journal of Ecology, vol. 7, pp. 9–25, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. G. Goodwin and A. M. Greenhall, “A review of the bats of Trinidad and Tobago,” Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 122, pp. 191–301, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  25. M. B. Fenton, I. L. Rautenbach, S. E. Smith, C. M. Swanepoel, J. Grosell, and J. van Jaarsveld, “Raptors and bats: threats and opportunities,” Animal Behaviour, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 9–18, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. Dittmar, M. L. Porter, S. Murray, and M. F. Whiting, “Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nycteribiid and streblid bat flies (Diptera: Brachycera, Calyptratae): implications for host associations and phylogeographic origins,” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 155–170, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. H. Fleming and N. Muchhala, “Nectar-feeding bird and bat niches in two worlds: pantropical comparisons of vertebrate pollination systems,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 764–780, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. H. Fleming, C. Geiselman, and W. J. Kress, “The evolution of bat pollination: a phylogenetic perspective,” Annals of Botany, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 1017–1043, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. S. Duncan and C. A. Chapman, “Seed dispersal and potential forest succession in abandoned agriculture in tropical Africa,” Ecological Applications, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 998–1008, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. F. Howe and J. Smallwood, “Ecology of seed dispersal,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 13, pp. 201–228, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. A. Horner, T. H. Fleming, and C. T. Sahley, “Foraging behaviour and energetics of a nectar-feeding bat, Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae),” Journal of Zoology, vol. 244, no. 4, pp. 575–586, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. Muscarella and T. H. Fleming, “The role of frugivorous bats in tropical forest succession,” Biological Reviews, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 573–590, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. I. W. Buddenhagen, “Bats and disappearing wild bananas: can bats keep commercial bananas on supermarket shelves?” Bats, vol. 26, pp. 1–6, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Shanahan, S. So, S. G. Compton, and R. Corlett, “Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review,” Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 529–572, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. R. Buchler, “Food transit time in Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae),” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 54, pp. 985–990, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. G. Boyles, P. M. Cryan, G. F. McCracken, and T. H. Kunz, “Economic importance of bats in agriculture,” Science, vol. 332, no. 6025, pp. 41–42, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. A. Polis, W. B. Anderson, and R. D. Holt, “Toward an integration of landscape and food web ecology: the dynamics of spatially subsidized food webs,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 28, pp. 289–316, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. L. Ferreira and R. P. Martins, “Diversity and distribution of spiders associated with bat guano piles in Morrinho cave (Bahia State, Brazil),” Diversity and Distributions, vol. 4, no. 5-6, pp. 235–241, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. B. Fenolio, G. O. Graening, B. A. Collier, and J. F. Stout, “Coprophagy in a cave-adapted salamander; the importance of bat guano examined through nutritional and stable isotope analyses,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 273, no. 1585, pp. 439–443, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. Parmesan, “Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol. 37, pp. 637–669, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. A. McGeoch, “The selection, testing and application of terrestrial insects as bioindicators,” Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 181–201, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. P. B. Landres, J. Verner, and J. W. Thomas, “Ecological uses of vertebrate indicator species: a critique,” Conservation Biology, vol. 2, pp. 316–327, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  43. C. E. Moreno, G. Sánchez-Rojas, E. Pineda, and F. Escobar, “Shortcuts for biodiversity evaluation: a review of terminology and recommendations for the use of target groups, bioindicators and surrogates,” International Journal of Environment and Health, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 71–86, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. B. Fenton, L. Acharya, D. Audet et al., “Phyllostomid bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) as indicators of habitat disruption in the neotropics,” Biotropica, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 440–446, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J. M. Melillo, “Human domination of Earth's ecosystems,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5325, pp. 494–499, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. W. Keeley and M. D. Tuttle, Bats in American Bridges, vol. 4, Bat Conservation International, 1999.
  47. G. F. McCracken, “Bats aloft: a study of high-altitude feeding,” BATS, vol. 14, pp. 7–101, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  48. C. J. Cleveland, M. Betke, P. Federico et al., “Economic value of the pest control service provided by Brazilian free-tailed bats in south-central Texas,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 238–243, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. Tapper, Wildlife Watching and Tourism: A Study on the BenefIts and Risks of a Fast Growing Tourism Activity and its Impacts on Species, UNEP/CMS Secretariat, Bonn, Germany, 2006.
  50. M. H. Reiskind and M. A. Wund, “Experimental assessment of the impacts of northern long-eared bats on ovipositing Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes,” Journal of Medical Entomology, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1037–1044, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. G. F. McCracken, V. A. Brown, M. Eldridge, and J. K. Westbrook, “The use of fecal DNA to verify and quantify the consumption of agricultural pests,” Bat Research News, vol. 46, pp. 195–196, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  52. E. L. Clare, E. E. Fraser, H. E. Braid, M. H. Fenton, and P. D. Hebert, “Species on the menu of a generalist predator, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis): using a molecular approach to detect arthropod prey,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 2532–2542, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Arizaga, E. Ezcurra, E. Peters, F. R. de Arellano, and E. Vega, “Pollination ecology of Agave macroacantha (Agavaceae) in a Mexican Tropical Desert: the role of pollinators,” The American Journal of Botany, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1011–1017, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. K. Godwa, R. C. Katiyar, and V. R. B. Sasfry, “Feeding value of Mahua (Madhuca indica) seed cakes in farm animals,” Indian Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 49, pp. 143–154, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  55. N. Gallai, J.-M. Salles, J. Settele, and B. E. Vaissière, “Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline,” Ecological Economics, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 810–821, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. Hougner, J. Colding, and T. Söderqvist, “Economic valuation of a seed dispersal service in the Stockholm National Urban Park, Sweden,” Ecological Economics, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 364–374, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. E. Hutchinson, “Survey of existing knowledge of biogeochemistry: the biogeochemistry of vertebrate excretion,” Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 96, pp. 1–554, 1950. View at Google Scholar
  58. M. D. Tuttle and A. Moreno, Cave-Dwelling Bats of Northern Mexico: Their Value and Conservation Needs, Bat Conservation International, Austin, Tex, USA, 2005.
  59. T. P. Eiting and G. F. Gunnell, “Global completeness of the bat fossil record,” Journal of Mammalian Evolution, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 151–173, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Mickleburgh, K. Waylen, and P. Racey, “Bats as bushmeat: a global review,” Oryx, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 217–234, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. F. O. Abulude, “Determination of the chemical composition of bush meats found in Nigeria,” The American Journal of Food Technology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 153–160, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. R. K. B. Jenkins and P. A. Racey, “Bats as bushmeat in Madagascar,” Madagascar Wildlife Conservation, vol. 3, pp. 22–30, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  63. W. D. Schleuning, “Vampire bat plasminogen activator DSPA-alpha-1 (desmoteplase): a thrombolytic drug optimized by natural selection,” Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis, vol. 31, pp. 118–122, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  64. L. A. Pennisi, S. M. Holland, and T. V. Stein, “Achieving bat conservation through tourism,” Journal of Ecotourism, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 195–207, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. Müller and R. Kuc, “Biosonar-inspired technology: goals, challenges and insights,” Bioinspiration and Biomimetics, vol. 2, pp. 146–161, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. G. Bunget and S. Seelecke, “BATMAV: a 2-DOF bio-inspired flapping flight platform,” in The International Society for Optics and Photonics, vol. 7643 of Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 1–11, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. H. A. Delpietro, N. Marchevsky, and E. Simonetti, “Relative population densities and predation of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in natural and cattle-raising areas in north-east Argentina,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1-2, pp. 13–20, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. K. M. Brown, R. M. Erwin, M. E. Richmond, P. A. Buckley, J. T. Tanacredi, and D. Avrin, “Managing birds and controlling aircraft in the Kennedy Airport-Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge complex: the need for hard data and soft opinions,” Environmental Management, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 207–224, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Transport Canada, Sharing the Skies: An Aviation Industry Guide to the Management of Wildlife Hazards, Transport Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 2001.
  70. S. C. Peurach, C. J. Dove, and L. Stepko, “A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes,” Humboldt Wild life Care Center, vol. 3, pp. 199–207, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  71. J. G. Parsons, D. Blair, J. Luly, and S. K. A. Robson, “Bat strikes in the Australian aviation industry,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 526–529, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. M. Greenhall, “Bats: their public health importance and control with special reference to Trinidad,” in Proceedings of the 2nd Vertebrate Pest Control Conference, vol. 18, pp. 108–116, 1964.
  73. C. H. Calisher, J. E. Childs, H. E. Field, K. V. Holmes, and T. Schountz, “Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 531–545, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. G. Wibbelt, A. Kurth, N. Yasmum et al., “Discovery of herpesviruses in bats,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 88, no. 10, pp. 2651–2655, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. B. Fenton, M. Davison, T. H. Kunz, G. F. McCracken, P. A. Racey, and M. D. Tuttle, “Linking bats to emerging diseases,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5764, pp. 1098–1099, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus