Overview of how the emphases are used when categorizing the PISA items.
|Solid foundation||Items that focus on science content that may facilitate future science instruction and education|
|Correct explanations||Items that focus on scientific facts and products without any requirement to understand underlying scientific models or theories|
|Self as explainer||Items demanding explanations and understanding of natural phenomena and theories|
|Everyday coping||Items emphasizing science as an important means for understanding and controlling everyday situations|
|Scientific skill development||Items that accentuate the practical parts of science, how to conduct an inquiry, plan an experiment, and handle equipment along with what can be learned from these situations|
|Science, technology, and decisions||Items focusing on applying and considering scientific knowledge to make valid and attentive decisions about the future and society|
|Structure of science||Items highlighting how science intellectually functions in its own growth and development, the interplay between evidence and theory, and the adequacy of a model to explain phenomena|