International Scholarly Research Notices / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Exploring Epistemological Trends in Students’ Understanding of Science from the Perspective of Large-Scale Studies

Table 1

Overview of how the emphases are used when categorizing the PISA items.

Solid foundationItems that focus on science content that may facilitate future science instruction and education

Correct explanationsItems that focus on scientific facts and products without any requirement to understand underlying scientific models or theories

Self as explainerItems demanding explanations and understanding of natural phenomena and theories

Everyday copingItems emphasizing science as an important means for understanding and controlling everyday situations

Scientific skill developmentItems that accentuate the practical parts of science, how to conduct an inquiry, plan an experiment, and handle equipment along with what can be learned from these situations

Science, technology, and decisionsItems focusing on applying and considering scientific knowledge to make valid and attentive decisions about the future and society

Structure of scienceItems highlighting how science intellectually functions in its own growth and development, the interplay between evidence and theory, and the adequacy of a model to explain phenomena

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