International Scholarly Research Notices / 2013 / Article / Fig 12

Review Article

Topological Order: From Long-Range Entangled Quantum Matter to a Unified Origin of Light and Electrons

Figure 12

A quantum ether: the fluctuation of oriented strings gives rise to electromagnetic waves (or light). The ends of strings give rise to electrons. Note that oriented strings have directions which should be described by curves with arrow. For ease of drawing, the arrows on the curves are omitted in the above plot.