Table of Contents
ISRN Neurology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 201719, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/201719
Review Article

Quantitative Nature of Social Vulnerability and Autism: An Important Paradigm Shift in the DSM-5 for Autism Spectrum Disorder

1Health Service Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-8580, Japan
2Institute for Externalization of Gifts and Talents (EGT), 7421-1 Shimofukumoto-cho, Kagoshima 891-0144, Japan

Received 25 March 2013; Accepted 11 April 2013

Academic Editors: A. Martinuzzi, D. Mathieu, and A. K. Petridis

Copyright © 2013 Shinji Ijichi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Wing, J. Gould, and C. Gillberg, “Autism spectrum disorders in the DSM-V: better or worse than the DSM-IV?” Research in Developmental Disabilities, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 768–773, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. Taheri and A. Perry, “Exploring the proposed DSM-5 criteria in a clinical sample,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1810–1817, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. C. McPartland, B. Reichow, and F. R. Volkmar, “Sensitivity and specificity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 368–383, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. E. Swedo, G. Baird, E. H. Cook Jr. et al., “Commentary from the DSM-5 workgroup on neurodevelopmental disorders,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 347–349, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  5. L. Wing, “The autistic spectrum,” The Lancet, vol. 350, no. 9093, pp. 1761–1766, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. M. Freitag, “The genetics of autistic disorders and its clinical relevance: a review of the literature,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 2–22, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Betancur, “Etiological heterogeneity in autism spectrum disorders: more than 100 genetic and genomic disorders and still counting,” Brain Research, vol. 1380, pp. 42–77, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Ijichi, N. Ijichi, Y. Ijichi, H. Sameshima, and H. Morioka, “The genetic basis of phenotypic diversity: autism as an extreme tail of a complex dimensional trait,” in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Genetics in Diagnosis and Treatment, S. I. Deutsch and M. R. Urbano, Eds., pp. 83–102, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  9. M. C. Keller and G. Miller, “Resolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders: which evolutionary genetic models work best?” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 405–452, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. A. Regier, “Dimensional approaches to psychiatric classification: refining the research agenda for DSM-V: an introduction,” International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, vol. 16, supplement 1, pp. S1–S5, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. Waterhouse, L. Wing, R. Spitzer, and B. Siegel, “Pervasive developmental disorders: from DSM-III to DSM-III-R,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 525–549, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Simpson, “Autism spectrum disorder is not as certain as implied,” British Medical Journal, vol. 326, no. 7396, p. 986, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. I. Kamp-Becker, J. Smidt, M. Ghahreman, M. Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, K. Becker, and H. Remschmidt, “Categorical and dimensional structure of autism spectrum disorders: the nosologic validity of asperger syndrome,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 921–929, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Lord, E. Petkova, V. Hus et al., “A multisite study of the clinical diagnosis of different autism spectrum disorders,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 306–313, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. T. W. Frazier, E. A. Youngstrom, L. Speer et al., “Validation of proposed DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 28.e3–40.e3, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Huerta, S. L. Bishop, A. Duncan, V. Hus, and C. Lord, “Application of DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder to three samples of children with DSM-IV diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorders,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 169, no. 10, pp. 1056–1064, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  17. S. Ijichi and N. Ijichi, “Computerized lifelong mentoring support using robot for autistic individuals,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 493–498, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. I. Rapin, “Autims (author reply),” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 21, pp. 1556–1557, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  19. P. A. Filipek, P. J. Accardo, G. T. Baranek et al., “The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 439–484, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. I. Rapin, “Autism in search of a home in the brain,” Neurology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 902–904, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. A. Filipek, P. J. Accardo, S. Ashwal et al., “Practice parameter: screening and diagnosis of autism. Report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society,” Neurology, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 468–479, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. N. Constantino and R. D. Todd, “Genetic structure of reciprocal social behavior,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 12, pp. 2043–2045, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. H. Skuse, W. P. L. Mandy, and J. Scourfield, “Measuring autistic traits: heritability, reliability and validity of the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 187, pp. 568–572, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Ronald, F. Happé, and R. Plomin, “The genetic relationship between individual differences in social and nonsocial behaviours characteristic of autism,” Developmental Science, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 444–458, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Ronald, F. Happé, P. Bolton et al., “Genetic heterogeneity between the three components of the autism spectrum: a twin study,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 691–699, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Ronald, F. Happé, T. S. Price, S. Baron-Cohen, and R. Plomin, “Phenotypic and genetic overlap between autistic traits at the extremes of the general population,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1206–1214, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. B. Posserud, A. J. Lundervold, and C. Gillberg, “Autistic features in a total population of 7-9-year-old children assessed by the ASSQ (Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire),” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 167–175, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. A. Hoekstra, M. Bartels, C. J. H. Verweij, and D. I. Boomsma, “Heritability of autistic traits in the general population,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 161, no. 4, pp. 372–377, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. N. Constantino, “The quantitative nature of autistic social impairment,” Pediatric Research, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 55R–62R, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. B. Robinson, K. C. Koenen, M. C. McCormick et al., “Evidence that autistic traits show the same etiology in the general population and at the quantitative extremes (5%, 2.5%, and 1%),” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 1113–1121, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  31. S. Lundstöm, Z. Chang, M. Råstam et al., “Autism spectrum disorders and autistic like traits: similar etiology in the extreme end and the normal variation,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  32. E. B. Robinson, K. C. Koenen, M. C. McCormick et al., “A multivariate twin study of autistic traits in 12-year-olds: testing the fractionable autism triad hypothesis,” Behavior Genetics, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 245–255, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  33. P. Szatmari, “New recommendations on autism spectrum disorder,” British Medical Journal, vol. 342, article d2456, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. W. Frazier, E. A. Youngstrom, L. Sinclair et al., “Autism spectrum disorders as a qualitatively distinct category from typical behavior in a large, clinically ascertained sample,” Assessment, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 308–320, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. S. Falconer and T. F. C. Mackay, “Threshold characters,” in Introduction to Quantitative Genetics, D. S. Falconer and T. F. C. Mackay, Eds., pp. 299–311, Pearson, Harlow, UK, 4rth edition, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  36. M. Al-Qabandi, J. W. Gorter, and P. Rosenbaum, “Early autism detection: are we ready for routine screening?” Pediatrics, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. e211–e217, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Hallmayer, S. Cleveland, A. Torres et al., “Genetic heritability and shared environmental factors among twin pairs with autism,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 1095–1102, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  38. S. Ozonoff, G. S. Young, A. Carter et al., “Recurrence risk for autism spectrum disorders: a baby siblings research consortium study,” Pediatrics, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. e488–e495, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  39. R. Voelker, “Autism screening strikes emotional chord,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 306, no. 7, pp. 691–692, 2011. View at Google Scholar