Table 1: Surface antigens and thier detection techniques with functional relevance.

Molecular structure/antigenDetection agent/techniqueProperties and functional relevance

Surface carbohydrates (oligosaccharides containing-galactose residues)Griffonia (Bandeiraea) simplicifolia isolectin B4Not known, also expressed by blood vessels
Surface carbohydrates (oligosaccharides containing N-acetylglucosamine oligomers)Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) lectinNot known, also expressed by blood vessels
Iba1 (ionized calcium-binding adaptormolecule 1)Antibodies against Iba1Protein with suggested role in calcium homeostasis
CD11b/18 (αMβ2 integrin)Antibodies against CD11b/CD18 (MAC1, OX42)Complement receptor 3 (CR3) with additional binding properties for other molecules, for example, Fibrinogen
CD45 (leukocyte common antigen, LCA)Antibodies against CD45, low expression compared with infiltrating leukocytesTransmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, functions in signaling, also roles for TCR and BCR activity
CD68 (macrosialin)Antibodies against CD68Role in Phagocytosis and as oxidized LDL-binding protein
F4/80 antigenF4/80 antibodyMember of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-transmembrane 7 (TM7) family, suggested role in immune tolerance

Functional orientation
MHC IIAntibodies against MHC II components, combinable with functional assays for antigen presentation to T cells in vitroAntigen presentation by APC
CD11c (integrin αX)Antibodies against CD11cCell adhesion, marker for dendritic cells as APC
CD34 (mucosialin, sialomucin)Antibodies against CD34Roles in adhesion, marker for precursor cells of the myeloid lineage
iNOS (inducible nitric oxidesynthase)Antibodies against iNOS, in situ hybridization indirectly by measurement of NO production via nitrite in vitroEnzymatic synthesis of NO from arginine during inflammation (upon gene induction), resulting also in citrulline generation

Transgenic models
CX3CR1Transgenic Mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in the Cx3cr1 locus (fractalkine receptor)Receptor for the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) with implications for the control of Microglial activity
Iba1Transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under control of the Iba1promoterProtein with suggested role in calcium homeostasis