Table of Contents
ISRN Epidemiology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 206120, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/206120
Research Article

Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoke and Offspring Risk of Excess Weight Is Independent of Both Birth Weight and Catch-Up Growth

1Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5
2Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1H 8MS

Received 7 June 2012; Accepted 3 July 2012

Academic Editors: H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita and J. W. R. Twisk

Copyright © 2013 Jonathan Gravel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Lobstein, L. Baur, and R. Uauy, “Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 5, supplement 1, pp. 4–104, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. M. Finucane, G. A. Stevens, M. J. Cowan et al., “National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9·1 million participants,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9765, pp. 557–567, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. S. Tremblay, M. Shields, M. Laviolette, C. L. Craig, I. Janssen, and S. C. Gorber, “Fitness of Canadian children and youth: results from the 2007–2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey.,” Health Reports, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 7–20, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. T. Finegood, T. D. N. Merth, and H. Rutter, “Implications of the foresight obesity system map for solutions to childhood obesity,” Obesity, vol. 18, supplement 1, pp. S13–S16, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. J. Reilly, E. Methven, Z. C. McDowell et al., “Health consequences of obesity,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 748–752, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. M. Puhl and K. D. Brownell, “Psychosocial origins of obesity stigma: toward changing a powerful and pervasive bias,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 213–227, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. O. Stubbs and A. J. Lee, “The obesity epidemic: both energy intake and physical activity contribute,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 181, no. 9, pp. 489–491, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Selassie and A. C. Sinha, “The epidemiology and aetiology of obesity: a global challenge,” Best Practice and Research, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. Oken and M. W. Gillman, “Fetal origins of obesity,” Obesity Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 496–506, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Y. Jiang, W. Han, and Z. X. Li, “Evidence and mechanisms of fetal origins of adult diseases,” Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 96–100, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Romo, R. Carceller, and J. Tobajas, “Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology,” Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews, vol. 6, supplement 3, pp. 332–336, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Al-Sahab, M. Saqib, G. Hauser, and H. Tamim, “Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy and associated risk factors among Canadian women: a national survey,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 10, p. 24, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. L. Andres and M. C. Day, “Perinatal complications associated with maternal tobacco use,” Seminars in Neonatology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 231–241, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Oken, E. B. Levitan, and M. W. Gillman, “Maternal smoking during pregnancy and child overweight: systematic review and meta-analysis,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 201–210, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Ino, “Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring obesity: meta-analysis,” Pediatrics International, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 94–99, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Dubois and M. Girard, “Early determinants of overweight at 4.5 years in a population-based longitudinal study,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 610–617, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. J. Ventura, B. E. Hamilton, T. J. Mathews, and A. Chandra, “Trends and variations in smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight: evidence from the birth certificate, 1990–2000,” Pediatrics, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 1176–1180, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. O. A. Monteiro and C. G. Victora, “Rapid growth in infancy and childhood and obesity in later life—a systematic review,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 143–154, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. K. L. Ong, M. L. Ahmed, D. B. Dunger, P. M. Emmett, and M. A. Preece, “Association between postnatal catch-up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 320, no. 7240, pp. 967–971, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. J. Cole, M. C. Bellizzi, K. M. Flegal, and W. H. Dietz, “Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey,” British Medical Journal, vol. 320, no. 7244, pp. 1240–1243, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. H. Dietz and T. N. Robinson, “Use of the body mass index (BMI) as a measure of overweight in children and adolescents,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 191–193, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. C. Kraemer, M. Kiernan, M. Essex, and D. J. Kupfer, “How and why criteria defining moderators and mediators differ between the Baron & Kenny and MacArthur approaches,” Health Psychology, vol. 27, supplement 2, pp. S101–S108, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Beyerlein, S. Rückinger, A. M. Toschke, A. Schaffrath Rosario, and R. Von Kries, “Is low birth weight in the causal pathway of the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and higher BMI in the offspring?” European Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 413–420, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Rückinger, A. Beyerlein, G. Jacobsen, R. von Kries, and T. Vik, “Growth in utero and body mass index at age 5 years in children of smoking and non-smoking mothers,” Early Human Development, vol. 86, no. 12, pp. 773–777, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Adams, A. M. N. Andersen, P. K. Andersen et al., “Sostrup statement on low birthweight,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 884–885, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Von Kries, A. M. Toschke, B. Koletzko, and W. Slikker Jr, “Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 156, no. 10, pp. 954–961, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. J. A. Chen and R. B. Kelly, “Effect of prenatal or perinatal nicotine exposure on neonatal thyroid status and offspring growth in rats,” Life Sciences, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 1249–1258, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. J. Gao, A. C. Holloway, Z. H. Zeng et al., “Prenatal exposure to nicotine causes postnatal obesity and altered perivascular adipose tissue function,” Obesity Research, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 687–692, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. J. Sharma, M. E. Cogswell, and R. Li, “Dose-response associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and subsequent childhood obesity: effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity in a low-income US cohort,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 168, no. 9, pp. 995–1007, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Suzuki, D. Ando, M. Sato, T. Tanaka, N. Kondo, and Z. Yamagata, “The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity persists to the age of 9-10 years,” Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 136–142, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. D. Levin, A. Wilkerson, J. P. Jones, N. Channelle Christopher, and S. J. Briggs, “Prenatal nicotine effects on memory in rats: pharmacological and behavioral challenges,” Developmental Brain Research, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 207–215, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y. J. Gao, A. C. Holloway, Z. H. Zeng et al., “Prenatal exposure to nicotine causes postnatal obesity and altered perivascular adipose tissue function,” Obesity Research, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 687–692, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. P. Ravelli, Z. A. Stein, and M. W. Susser, “Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 295, no. 7, pp. 349–353, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. A. Slotkin, “Fetal nicotine or cocaine exposure: which one is worse?” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 285, no. 3, pp. 931–945, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. C. Miller, K. Hassanein, and P. A. Hensleigh, “Fetal growth retardation in relation to maternal smoking and weight gain in pregnancy,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. C. Harvey, J. R. Poole, M. K. Javaid et al., “Parental determinants of neonatal body composition,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 523–526, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. von Kries, G. Bolte, L. Baghi et al., “Parental smoking and childhood obesity—is maternal smoking in pregnancy the critical exposure?” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 210–216, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. B. Durmuş, C. J. Kruithof, M. H. Gillman et al., “Parental smoking during pregnancy, early growth, and risk of obesity in preschool children: the generation R study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 164–171, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Al Mamun, D. A. Lawlor, R. Alati, M. J. O'Callaghan, G. M. Williams, and J. M. Najman, “Does maternal smoking during pregnancy have a direct effect on future offspring obesity? Evidence from a prospective birth cohort study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 164, no. 4, pp. 317–325, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. M. Prentice and S. A. Jebb, “Beyond body mass index,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 141–147, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. C. Gorber, M. Tremblay, D. Moher, and B. Gorber, “A comparison of direct vs. self-report measures for assessing height, weight and body mass index: a systematic review,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 307–326, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus