Table of Contents
ISRN Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 210524, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/210524
Review Article

Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss

1Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
2Department of Nutrition, College of Health Science, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383, USA

Received 1 March 2013; Accepted 27 March 2013

Academic Editors: H. Gordish-Dressman, E. K. Naderali, S. J. Pintauro, S. Straube, and J. Zempleni

Copyright © 2013 Erik Scott Blomain et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. S. Malik, W. C. Willett, and F. B. Hu, “Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications,” Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 13–27, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  2. Y. Wang, M. A. Beydoun, L. Liang, B. Caballero, and S. K. Kumanyika, “Will all Americans become overweight or obese? Estimating the progression and cost of the US obesity epidemic,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2323–2330, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. L. Ogden, M. D. Carroll, B. K. Kit, and K. M. Flegal, “Prevalence of obesity in the United States, 2009-2010,” NCHS Data Brief 82, pp. 1–8, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. P. G. Kopelman, “Obesity as a medical problem,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6778, pp. 635–643, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. C. Eisenmann, P. T. Katzmarzyk, L. Perusse, A. Tremblay, J. P. Després, and C. Bouchard, “Aerobic fitness, body mass index, and CVD risk factors among adolescents: the Québec family study,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1077–1083, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. D. Batty, M. J. Shipley, R. J. Jarrett, E. Breeze, M. G. Marmot, and G. D. Smith, “Obesity and overweight in relation to organ-specific cancer mortality in London (UK): findings from the original Whitehall study,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1267–1274, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Sturm, “The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs,” Health Affairs, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 245–253, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. V. Russell, C. W. Pierce, and L. Nunley, “Financial implications of obesity,” Orthopedic Clinics of North America, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 123–127, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. A. Swinburn, G. Sacks, K. L. Sing et al., “Estimating the changes in energy flux that characterize the rise in obesity prevalence,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 1723–1728, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. M. Flegal, M. D. Carroll, C. L. Ogden, and L. R. Curtin, “Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 3, pp. 235–241, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. L. Bish, H. M. Blanck, M. K. Serdula, M. Marcus, H. W. Kohl, and L. K. Khan, “Diet and physical activity behaviors among Americans trying to lose weight: 2000 behavioral risk factor surveillance system,” Obesity Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 596–607, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Kruger, D. A. Galuska, M. K. Serdula, and D. A. Jones, “Attempting to lose weight: specific practices among U.S. adults,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 402–406, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Andreyeva, M. W. Long, K. E. Henderson, and G. M. Grode, “Trying to lose weight: diet strategies among Americans with overweight or obesity in 1996 and 2003,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 535–542, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. A. Berkel, W. S. Poston, R. S. Reeves, and J. P. Foreyt, “Behavioral interventions for obesity,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 105, Supplement 1, no. 5, pp. S35–S43, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  15. A. Lang and E. S. Froelicher, “Management of overweight and obesity in adults: behavioral intervention for long-term weight loss and maintenance,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 102–114, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. M. Nicklas, K. W. Huskey, R. B. Davis, and C. C. Wee, “Successful weight loss among obese U.S. adults,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 481–485, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  17. “Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults—the evidence report. National Institutes of Health,” Obesity Research, vol. 6, Supplement 2, pp. 51S–209S, 1998.
  18. B. R. Smith, P. Schauer, and N. T. Nguyen, “Surgical approaches to the treatment of obesity: bariatric surgery,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 943–964, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. S. Choban, B. Jackson, S. Poplawski, and P. Bistolarides, “Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity: why, who, when, how, where, and then what?” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 897–903, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. B. Sarwer, A. V. S. Green, M. L. Vetter, and T. A. Wadden, “Behavior therapy for obesity: where are we now?” Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 347–352, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. L. Kraschnewski, J. Boan, J. Esposito et al., “Long-term weight loss maintenance in the United States,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1644–1654, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. W. Schwartz, S. C. Woods, D. Porte, R. J. Seeley, and D. G. Baskin, “Central nervous system control of food intake,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6778, pp. 661–671, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. S. Weigle, “Appetite and the regulation of body composition,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 302–310, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. X. Cao, G. H. Wu, B. Zhang et al., “Resting energy expenditure and body composition in patients with newly detected cancer,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 72–77, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Plasqui and K. R. Westerterp, “Seasonal variation in total energy expenditure and physical activity in Dutch young adults,” Obesity Research, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 688–694, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. A. Bray, S. R. Smith, L. DeJonge et al., “Effect of diet composition on energy expenditure during weight loss: the POUNDS LOST study,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 448–455, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  27. R. L. Leibel, M. Rosenbaum, and J. Hirsch, “Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 332, no. 10, pp. 621–628, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. B. Ebbeling, J. F. Swain, H. A. Feldman et al., “Effects of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, no. 24, pp. 2627–2634, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. J. W. Krieger, H. S. Sitren, M. J. Daniels, and B. Langkamp-Henken, “Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 260–274, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. K. Layman and D. A. Walker, “Potential importance of leucine in treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, supplement 1, pp. 319S–323S, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. K. Layman, E. M. Evans, D. Erickson et al., “A moderate-protein diet produces sustained weight loss and long-term changes in body composition and blood lipids in obese adults,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 139, no. 3, pp. 514–521, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. M. Larsen, S. M. Dalskov, M. Van Baak et al., “Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 22, pp. 2102–2113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. S. MacLean, J. A. Higgins, G. C. Johnson, B. K. Fleming-Elder, J. C. Peters, and J. O. Hill, “Metabolic adjustments with the development, treatment, and recurrence of obesity in obesity-prone rats,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 287, no. 2, pp. R288–R297, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. J. Caton, B. Yinglong, L. Burget, L. J. Spangler, M. H. Tschöp, and M. Bidlingmaier, “Low-carbohydrate high-fat diets: regulation of energy balance and body weight regain in rats,” Obesity, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 283–289, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Sumithran and J. Proietto, “The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss,” Clinical Science, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 231–241, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  36. J. L. Halaas, K. S. Gajiwala, M. Maffei et al., “Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene,” Science, vol. 269, no. 5223, pp. 543–546, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. S. Ahima, D. Prabakaran, C. Mantzoros et al., “Role of leptin in the neuroendocrine response to fasting,” Nature, vol. 382, no. 6588, pp. 250–252, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. V. Considine, E. L. Considine, C. J. Williams et al., “Evidence against either a premature stop codon or the absence of obese gene mRNA in human obesity,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 2986–2988, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. V. Considine, E. L. Considine, C. J. Williams, T. M. Hyde, and J. F. Caro, “The hypothalamic leptin receptor in humans: identification of incidental sequence polymorphisms and absence of the db/db mouse and fa/fa rat mutations,” Diabetes, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 992–994, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Mapfei, J. Halaas, E. Ravussin et al., “Leptin levels in human and rodent: measurement of plasma leptin and ob RNA in obese and weight-reduced subjects,” Nature Medicine, vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 1155–1161, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. K. Niskanen, S. Haffner, L. J. Karhunen, A. K. Turpeinen, H. Miettinen, and M. I. J. Uusitupa, “Serum leptin in obesity is related to gender and body fat topography but does not predict successful weight loss,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Klein, S. W. Coppack, V. Mohamed-Ali, and M. Landt, “Adipose tissue leptin production and plasma leptin kinetics in humans,” Diabetes, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 984–987, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. F. Caro, J. W. Kolaczynski, M. R. Nyce et al., “Decreased cerebrospinal-fluid/serum leptin ratio in obesity: a possible mechanism for leptin resistance,” The Lancet, vol. 348, no. 9021, pp. 159–161, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Van Heek, D. S. Compton, C. F. France et al., “Diet-induced obese mice develop peripheral, but not central, resistance to leptin,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 385–390, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Rezek, “The role of insulin in the glucostatic control of food intake,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 650–665, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Y. Zhang, R. Proenca, M. Maffei, M. Barone, L. Leopold, and J. M. Friedman, “Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue,” Nature, vol. 372, no. 6505, pp. 425–432, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Raben, A. Tagliabue, N. J. Christensen, J. Madsen, J. J. Holst, and A. Astrup, “Resistant starch: the effect on postprandial glycemia, hormonal response, and satiety,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 544–551, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. M. Wren, L. J. Seal, M. A. Cohen et al., “Ghrelin enhances appetite and increases food intake in humans,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 12, article 5992, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  49. R. L. Batterham, M. A. Cowley, C. J. Small et al., “Gut hormone PYY3-36 physiologically inhibits food intake,” Nature, vol. 418, no. 6898, pp. 650–654, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. P. Gutzwiller, B. Göke, J. Drewe et al., “Glucagon-like peptide-1: a potent regulator of food intake in humans,” Gut, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. L. Batterham, C. W. le Roux, M. A. Cohen et al., “Pancreatic polypeptide reduces appetite and food intake in humans,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 8, pp. 3989–3992, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  52. M. A. Valentino, J. E. Lin, A. E. Snook et al., “A uroguanylin-GUCY2C endocrine axis regulates feeding in mice,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 121, no. 9, pp. 3578–3588, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  53. A. G. Nieuwenhuizen and F. Rutters, “The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis in the regulation of energy balance,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 169–177, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. E. Silva, “Thyroid hormone control of thermogenesis and energy balance,” Thyroid, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 481–492, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. P. Sumithran, L. A. Prendergas, E. Delbridge et al., “Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, no. 17, pp. 1597–1604, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  56. K. A. Varady, L. Tussing, S. Bhutani, and C. L. Braunschweig, “Degree of weight loss required to improve adipokine concentrations and decrease fat cell size in severely obese women,” Metabolism, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 1096–1101, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. C. M. Adam, J. Jochan, and M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga, “Decreased glucagon-like peptide 1 release after weight loss in overweight/obese subjects,” Obesity Research, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 710–716, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. A. Essah, J. R. Levy, S. N. Sistrun, S. M. Kelly, and J. E. Nestler, “Effect of weight loss by a low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet on peptide YY levels,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1239–1242, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. W. M. Kong, M. H. Sheikh, P. J. Lumb et al., “A 6-month randomized trial of thyroxine treatment in women with mild subclinical hypothyroidism,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 112, no. 5, pp. 348–354, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. M. Lechan and C. Fekete, “Feedback regulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): mechanisms for the non-thyroidal illness syndrome,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 27, supplement 6, pp. 105–119, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. G. Solanes, N. Pedraza, V. Calvo, A. Vidal-Puig, B. B. Lowell, and F. Villarroya, “Thyroid hormones directly activate the expression of the human and mouse uncoupling protein-3 genes through a thyroid response element in the proximal promoter region,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 386, part 3, pp. 505–513, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. C. Bianco, A. L. Maia, W. S. da Silva, and M. A. Christoffolete, “Adaptive activation of thyroid hormone and energy expenditure,” Bioscience Reports, vol. 25, no. 3-4, pp. 191–208, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. Al-Adsani, L. J. Hoffer, and J. E. Silva, “Resting energy expenditure is sensitive to small dose changes in patients on chronic thyroid hormone replacement,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 1118–1125, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. C. S. Mitchell, D. B. Savage, S. Dufour et al., “Resistance to thyroid hormone is associated with raised energy expenditure, muscle mitochondrial uncoupling, and hyperphagia,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 1345–1354, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. N. Marine, J. M. Hershman, M. H. Maxwell, L. P. Dornfeld, and P. Schroth, “Dietary restriction on serum thyroid hormone levels,” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 301, no. 5, pp. 310–313, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. A. Romijn, R. Adriaanse, G. Brabant, K. Prank, E. Endert, and W. M. Wiersinga, “Pulsatile secretion of thyrotropin during fasting: a decrease of thyrotropin pulse amplitude,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 1631–1636, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. T. A. Wadden, G. Mason, G. D. Foster, A. J. Stunkard, and A. J. Prange, “Effects of a very low calorie diet on weight, thyroid hormones and mood,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 249–258, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. Kozłowska and D. Rosołowska-Huszcz, “Leptin, thyrotropin, and thyroid hormones in obese/overweight women before and after two levels of energy deficit,” Endocrine, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 147–153, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. T. O'Brian, D. E. Bybee, and K. D. Burman, “Thyroid hormone homeostasis in states of relative caloric deprivation,” Metabolism, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 721–727, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. E. Doucet, P. Imbeault, S. St-Pierre et al., “Appetite after weight loss by energy restriction and a low-fat diet-exercise follow-up,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 906–914, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. E. Zakrzewska, I. Cusin, A. Sainsbury, F. Rohner-Jeanrenaud, and B. Jeanrenaud, “Glucocorticoids as counterregulatory hormones of leptin: toward an understanding of leptin resistance,” Diabetes, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 717–719, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. M. Johnstone, P. Faber, R. Andrew et al., “Influence of short-term dietary weight loss on cortisol secretion and metabolism in obese men,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 185–194, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. J. Tomiyama, T. Mann, D. Vinas, J. M. Hunger, J. Dejager, and S. E. Taylor, “Low calorie dieting increases cortisol,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 357–364, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. Galvao-Teles, L. Graves, and C. W. Burke, “Free cortisol in obesity; effect of fasting,” Acta Endocrinologica, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 321–329, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. T. Ho, J. B. Keogh, S. R. Bornstein et al., “Moderate weight loss reduces renin and aldosterone but does not influence basal or stimulated pituitary-adrenal axis function,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 694–699, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. J. Jackson, F. E. Leahy, A. A. McGowan, L. J. C. Bluck, W. A. Coward, and S. A. Jebb, “Delayed gastric emptying in the obese: an assessment using the non-invasive 13C-octanoic acid breath test,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 264–270, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. A. Wright, S. Krinsky, and C. Fleeman, “Gastric emptying and obesity,” Gastroenterology, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 747–751, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. B. Zahorska-Markiewicz, K. Jonderko, A. Lelek, and D. Skrzypek, “Gastric emptying in obesity,” Human Nutrition, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 309–313, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  79. B. Glasbrenner, O. Pieramico, D. Brecht-Krauss, M. Baur, and P. Malfertheiner, “Gastric emptying of solids and liquids in obesity,” Clinical Investigator, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 542–546, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. Cardoso, L. G. vaz Coelho, P. R. Savassi-Rocha et al., “Gastric emptying of solids and semi-solids in morbidly obese and non-obese subjects: an assessment using the 13C-octanoic acid and 13C-acetic acid breath tests,” Obesity Surgery, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 236–241, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. P. Duggan and D. A. Booth, “Obesity, overeating, and rapid gastric emptying in rats with ventromedial hypothalamic lesions,” Science, vol. 231, no. 4738, pp. 609–611, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Horowitz, Y. C. Su, C. K. Rayner, and K. L. Jones, “Gastroparesis: prevalence, clinical significance and treatment,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 805–813, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. Tack, P. Caenepeel, B. Fischler, H. Piessevaux, and J. Janssens, “Symptoms associated with hypersensitivity to gastric distention in functional dyspepsia,” Gastroenterology, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 526–535, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. Verdich, J. L. Madsen, S. Toubro, B. Buemann, J. J. Holst, and A. Astrup, “Effect of obesity and major weight reduction on gastric emptying,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 899–905, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. C. Tosetti, R. Corinaldesi, V. Stanghellini et al., “Gastric emptying of solids in morbid obesity,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 200–205, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  86. E. M. H. Mathus-Vliegen, M. L. van Ierland-van Leeuwen, and R. J. Bennink, “Influences of fat restriction and lipase inhibition on gastric emptying in obesity,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1203–1210, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. W. R. Hutson and A. Wald, “Obesity and weight reduction do not influence gastric emptying and antral motility,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 1405–1409, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. B. Oliván, J. Teixeira, M. Bose et al., “Effect of weight loss by diet or gastric bypass surgery on peptide YY3-36 levels,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 249, no. 6, pp. 948–953, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. B. Laferrère, J. Teixeira, J. McGinty et al., “Effect of weight loss by gastric bypass surgery versus hypocaloric diet on glucose and incretin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 2479–2485, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. D. Cameron, G. S. Goldfield, M. J. Cyr, and E. Doucet, “The effects of prolonged caloric restriction leading to weight-loss on food hedonics and reinforcement,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 474–480, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. Drewnowski, J. D. Brunzell, and K. Sande, “Sweet tooth reconsidered: taste responsiveness in human obesity,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 617–622, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. Rosenbaum, R. Goldsmith, D. Bloomfield et al., “Low-dose leptin reverses skeletal muscle, autonomic, and neuroendocrine adaptations to maintenance of reduced weight,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 115, no. 12, pp. 3579–3586, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. Rosenbaum, M. Sy, K. Pavlovich, R. L. Leibel, and J. Hirsch, “Leptin reverses weight loss-induced changes in regional neural activity responses to visual food stimuli,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 118, no. 7, pp. 2583–2591, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. H. R. Kissileff, J. C. Thornton, M. I. Torres et al., “Leptin reverses declines in satiation in weight-reduced obese humans,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 309–317, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  95. M. A. Valentino, J. E. Lin, and S. A. Waldman, “Central and peripheral molecular targets for antiobesity pharmacotherapy,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 652–662, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus