Table of Contents
ISRN Oxidative Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 257463, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/257463
Research Article

Beneficial Regulation of Elastase Activity and Expression of Tissue Inhibitors of Matrixmetalloproteinases, Fibrillin, Transforming Growth Factor- , and Heat Shock Proteins by P. leucotomos in Nonirradiated or Ultraviolet-Radiated Epidermal Keratinocytes

1School of Natural Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University, 1000 River Road, Teaneck, NJ 07666, USA
2Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, NY 10065, USA

Received 19 August 2013; Accepted 21 October 2013

Academic Editors: A. B. Salmon, T. B. Shea, A. Shukla, and Y. Yoshida

Copyright © 2013 Neena Philips and Salvador Gonzalez. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

There is loss of the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with intrinsic aging as well as photoaging, largely due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The structural ECM proteins include the microfibrils that are composed of fibrillin. The structural ECM proteins are primarily degraded by the matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs) and elastase enzymes. The MMPs are inhibited by the tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). A primary regulator of the ECM proteins is transforming growth factor- (TGF- ), and the chaperone proteins important for its formation are the heat shock proteins (HSP). P. leucotomos extract beneficially regulates of MMPs, TIMPs, and TGF- in nonirradiated or ultraviolet (UV) radiated fibroblasts and melanoma cells. The hypothesis of this research was that the antioxidant activity or chemistry of P. leucotomos extract would also directly inhibit elastase activity, stimulate the cellular expression of TIMPs, fibrillins, and TGF- , and regulate HSPs in nonirradiated and UVA or UVB radiated epidermal keratinocytes. P. leucotomos directly inhibited elastase activity, stimulated the cellular expression of TIMPs, fibrillins, and TGF- , and differentially regulated HSPs in nonirradiated and UVA or UVB radiated epidermal keratinocytes. We infer that the P. leucotomos extract strengthens the ECM and is effective in the prevention or treatment of intrinsic and photoaging of skin.