Table of Contents
ISRN Chromatography
Volume 2013, Article ID 283462, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/283462
Research Article

Profiling of Phytochemicals in Tissues from Sclerocarya birrea by HPLC-MS and Their Link with Antioxidant Activity

1Department of Food Biosciences, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland
2Department of Biology, University of Basilicata, V.le dell'Ateneo Lucano, 85100 Potenza, Italy
3Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, BP 5005, Dakar-Fann, Senegal
4School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland

Received 27 March 2013; Accepted 29 April 2013

Academic Editors: R. F. D. Nascimento, T. Oi, Y. Qiu, and Y. Uesawa

Copyright © 2013 Daniela Russo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. R. Peter, “Notes on the distribution and relative abundance of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst. (Anacardiaceae),” Monographs in Systematic Botany of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, vol. 25, pp. 403–410, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  2. G. N. Gouwakinnou, A. M. Lykke, A. E. Assogbadjo, and B. Sinsin, “Local knowledge, pattern and diversity of use of Sclerocarya birrea,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 7, article 8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Wynberg, J. Cribbins, R. Leakey et al., “Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and southern Africa: a summary. Part 2: commercial use, tenure and policy, domestication, intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing,” Southern African Forestry Journal, no. 196, pp. 67–77, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. A. Jama, A. M. Mohamed, J. Mulatya, and A. N. Njui, “Comparing the “Big Five”: a framework for the sustainable management of indigenous fruit trees in the drylands of East and Central Africa,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 170–179, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. C. Mokgolodi, Y.-F. Ding, M. P. Setshogo, C. Ma, and Y. J. Liu, “The importance of an indigenous tree to southern African communities with specific relevance to its domestication and commercialization: a case of the marula tree,” Forestry Studies in China, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 36–44, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Gelfand, The Traditional Medical Practitioner in Zimbabwe: His Principles of Practice and Pharmacopoeia, Mambo Press, 1985.
  7. J. A. O. Ojewole, T. Mawoza, W. D. H. Chiwororo, and P. M. O. Owira, “Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst. [“Marula”] (anacardiaceae): a review of its phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology and its ethnomedicinal uses,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 633–639, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. N. Eloff, “Antibacterial activity of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea (A. rich.) Hochst. subsp. Caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro) (Anacardiaceae) bark and leaves,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 305–308, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Masoko, T. J. Mmushi, M. M. Mogashoa, M. P. Mokgotho, L. J. Mampuru, and R. L. Howard, “In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea extracts against pathogenic yeasts,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 7, no. 20, pp. 3521–3526, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. J. McGaw, D. Van der Merwe, and J. N. Eloff, “In vitro anthelmintic, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of extracts from plants used in South African ethnoveterinary medicine,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 366–372, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. G. M. Ndifossap, F. Frigerio, M. Casimir et al., “Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark extract corrects glycaemia in diabetic rats and acts on β-cells by enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 205, no. 1, pp. 79–86, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Borochov-Neori, S. Judeinstein, A. Greenberg et al., “Phenolic antioxidants and antiatherogenic effects of marula (Sclerocarrya birrea subsp. caffra) fruit juice in healthy humans,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 21, pp. 9884–9891, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Braca, M. Politi, R. Sanogo et al., “Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from wild and cultivated Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) leaves,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 23, pp. 6689–6695, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Lamien-Meda, C. E. Lamien, M. M. Y. Compaoré et al., “Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso,” Molecules, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 581–594, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. A. Mariod, B. Matthäus, and I. H. Hussein, “Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from different parts of Sclerocarya birrea,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 921–926, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. R. Ndhlala, A. Kasiyamhuru, C. Mupure, K. Chitindingu, M. A. Benhura, and M. Muchuweti, “Phenolic composition of Flacourtia indica, Opuntia megacantha and Sclerocarya birrea,” Food Chemistry, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 82–87, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. P. Brunton, D. A. Cronin, and F. J. Monahan, “Volatile components associated with freshly cooked and oxidized off-flavours in Turkey breast meat,” Flavour and Fragrance Journal, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 327–334, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. N. O'Grady, F. J. Monahan, and N. P. Brunton, “Oxymyoglobin oxidation and lipid oxidation in bovine muscle—mechanistic studies,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 386–392, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. B. Addis, “Occurrence of lipid oxidation products in foods,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 24, no. 10-11, pp. 1021–1030, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Galvez Peralta, A. Zarzuelo, R. Busson, C. Cobbaert, and P. De Witte, “(-)-Epicatechin-3-galloyl ester: a secretagogue compound from the bark of Sclerocarya birrea,” Planta Medica, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 174–175, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. A. Aganga and K. W. Mosase, “Tannin content, nutritive value and dry matter digestibility of Lonchocarpus capassa, Zizyphus mucronata, Sclerocarya birrea, Kirkia acuminata and Rhus lancea seeds,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 91, no. 1-2, pp. 107–113, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Ariga and M. Hamano, “Radical scavenging action and its mode in Procyanidins B-1 and B-3 from azuki beans to peroxyl radicals (Food & Nutrition),” Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 2499–2504, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  23. G. E. Arteel and H. Sies, “Protection against peroxynitrite by cocoa polyphenol oligomers,” FEBS Letters, vol. 462, no. 1-2, pp. 167–170, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Goupy, M. Hugues, P. Boivin, and M. J. p. Amiot, “Antioxidant composition and activity of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and malt extracts and of isolated phenolic compounds,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 1625–1634, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  25. P. Stratil, B. Klejdus, and V. Kubáň, “Determination of total content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in vegetables—evaluation of spectrophotometric methods,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 607–616, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. V. L. Singleton, R. Orthofer, and R. M. Lamuela-Raventós, “Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 299, pp. 152–178, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Moyo, A. R. Ndhlala, J. F. Finnie, and J. Van Staden, “Phenolic composition, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Sclerocarya birrea and Harpephyllum caffrum (Anacardiaceae) extracts,” Food Chemistry, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 69–76, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Pérez-Jiménez and F. Saura-Calixto, “Literature data may underestimate the actual antioxidant capacity of cereals,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 5036–5040, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Olsen, O. Meyer, N. Bille, and G. Wurtzen, “Carcinogenicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Wistar rats exposed in utero,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Ye, Y. Yan, and D. A. Guo, “Characterization of phenolic compounds in the Chinese herbal drug Tu-Si-Zi by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry,” Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1469–1484, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. M. Viljoen, G. P. P. Kamatou, and K. H. C. Başer, “Head-space volatiles of marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra),” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 325–326, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. P. Passos, S. M. Cardoso, M. R. M. Domingues, P. Domingues, C. M. Silva, and M. A. Coimbra, “Evidence for galloylated type-A procyanidins in grape seeds,” Food Chemistry, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 1457–1467, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. I. I. Rockenbach, E. Jungfer, C. Ritter, B. Thiele, R. Fett, and R. Galensa, “Characterization of flavan-3-ols in seeds of grape pomace by CE, HPLC-DAD-MS and LC-ESI-FTICR-MS,” Food Research International, vol. 48, pp. 848–855, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  34. T. De Bruyne, L. Pieters, M. Witvrouw, E. De Clercq, D. V. Berghe, and A. J. Vlietinck, “Biological evaluation of proanthocyanidin dimers and related polyphenols,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 954–958, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus