Table of Contents
ISRN Parasitology
Volume 2013, Article ID 308726, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/308726
Research Article

Characterization of Leishmania Species Isolated from Cutaneous Human Samples from Central Region of Syria by RFLP Analysis

1Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, Damascus University, Damascus 96311, Syria
2Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 (NAMRU-3), Cairo 11517, Egypt

Received 25 June 2013; Accepted 13 August 2013

Academic Editors: L. Nimri, O. F. Osman, J. M. Perez, and G. Swedberg

Copyright © 2013 Samar Anis Al-Nahhas and Rania Magdy Kaldas. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization (WHO), Manual For Case Management of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the WHO, Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2012.
  2. A. Khiami, J. Dereure, F. Pratlong, A. Martini, and J. Rioux, “La leishmaniose cutanee humaine a Leishmania major mon—26 Aux environs de Damas (Syrie),” Le Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, vol. 84, pp. 1–5, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  3. K. Knio, E. Baydoun, R. Tawk, and N. Nuwayri-Salti, “Isoenzyme characterization of Leishmania isolates from Lebanon and Syria,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 63, no. 1-2, pp. 43–47, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. A. Rioux, R. W. Ashford, and A. Khiami, “Ecoepidemiology of leishmaniases in Syria. 3. Leishmania major infection in Psammomys obesus provides clues to life history of the rodent and possible control measures,” Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 163–165, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Tayeh, L. Jalouk, and S. Cairncross, “Twenty years of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Aleppo, Syria,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 657–659, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. A. Al-Nahhas, “Serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Syrian Arab Republic,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 382–386, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. A. Rioux, G. Lanotte, E. Serres, F. Pratlong, P. Bastien, and J. Perieres, “Taxonomy of Leishmania. Use of isoenzymes. Suggestions for a new classification,” Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 111–125, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Belkaïd, Z. Harrat, B. Hemrioui, M. Thellier, A. Datry, and M. Danis, “A propos d'un milieu simple pour l'isolement et la culture des leishmanies,” Le Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, vol. 89, pp. 276–277, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  9. K. Aoun, A. Bouratbine, Z. Harrat et al., “Epidemiological and parasitological data for sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Tunisia,” Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 101–103, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Wortmann, L. Hochberg, H.-H. Houng et al., “Rapid identification of Leishmania complexes by a real-time PCR assay,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 999–1004, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. B. Abda, F. De Monbrison, N. Bousslimi, K. Aoun, A. Bouratbine, and S. Picot, “Advantages and limits of real-time PCR assay and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for the identification of cutaneous Leishmania species in Tunisia,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Jirkù, E. Zemanov, A. Al-Jawabreh, G. Schonian, and J. Lukes, “Development of a direct species-specific PCR assay for differential diagnosis of Leishmania tropica,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 55, pp. 75–79, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. G. Spanakos, E.-T. Piperaki, P. G. Menounos, N. Tegos, A. Flemetakis, and N. C. Vakalis, “Detection and species identification of Old World Leishmania in clinical samples using a PCR-based method,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 46–53, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Marfurt, A. Nasereddin, I. Niederwieser, C. L. Jaffe, H.-P. Beck, and I. Felger, “Identification and differentiation of Leishmania species in clinical samples by PCR amplification of the miniexon sequence and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 3147–3153, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Schönian, L. Schnur, M. El Fari et al., “Genetic heterogeneity in the species Leishmania tropica revealed by different PCR-based methods,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 217–224, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Schönian, A. Nasereddin, N. Dinse et al., “PCR diagnosis and characterization of Leishmania in local and imported clinical samples,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 349–358, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Al-Jawabreh, G. Schoenian, O. Hamarsheh, and W. Presber, “Clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis: a comparison study between standardized graded direct microscopy and ITS1-PCR of Giemsa-stained smears,” Acta Tropica, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 55–61, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. M. R. Davila and H. Momen, “Internal-transcribed-spacer (ITS) sequences used to explore phylogenetic relationships within Leishmania,” Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 651–654, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. Bensoussan, A. Nasereddin, F. Jonas, L. F. Schnur, and C. L. Jaffe, “Comparison of PCR assays for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1435–1439, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. O. Toz, A. Nasereddin, Y. Ozbel et al., “Leishmaniasis in Turkey: molecular characterization of Leishmania from human and canine clinical samples,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1401–1406, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. O. El Tai, O. F. Osman, M. El Fari, W. Presber, and G. Schönian, “Genetic heterogeneity of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer in clinical samples of Leishmania donovani spotted on filter paper as revealed by single-strand conformation polymorphisms and sequencing,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 575–579, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. Akkafa, F. Dilmec, and Z. Alpua, “Identification of Leishmania parasites in clinical samples obtained from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients using PCR-RFLP technique in endemic region, Sanliurfa province, in Turkey,” Parasitology Research, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 583–586, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. L. Khatri, T. Di Muccio, and M. Gramiccia, “Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North-Western Yemen: a clinicoepidemiologic study and Leishmania species identification by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. e15–e21, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Doudi, S. H. Hejazi, M. R. Razavi, M. Narimani, S. Khanjani, and G. Eslami, “Comparative molecular epidemiology of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica by PCR-RFLP technique in hyper endemic cities of Isfahan and Bam, Iran,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 530–535, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. H. Roelfsema, N. Nozari, T. Herremans, L. M. Kortbeek, and E. Pinelli, “Evaluation and improvement of two PCR targets in molecular typing of clinical samples of Leishmania patients,” Experimental Parasitology, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 36–41, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Rotureau, C. Ravel, P. Couppié et al., “Use of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the main new world Leishmania species and analyze their taxonomic properties and polymorphism by application of the assay to clinical samples,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 459–467, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus