Table of Contents
ISRN Stroke
Volume 2013, Article ID 312348, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/312348
Clinical Study

Hospital-Acquired Infection Underlies Poor Functional Outcome in Patients with Prolonged Length of Stay

1Stroke Program at Tulane University Hospital, Department of Neurology, 1440 Canal Street, TB-52, Suite 1000, New Orleans, LA 70112-2715, USA
2Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd., Birmingham, AL 35294-0022, USA
3Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Blvd., Birmingham, AL 35233-0022, USA
4Health Services and Outcomes Research Center for Outcome and Effectiveness Research and Education (COERE), 1530 3rd Avenue South, Medical Towers, Birmingham, AL 35294-4410, USA
5Center of Excellence in Comparative Effectiveness Research for Eliminating Disparities (CERED) Minority Health & Health Disparities Research Center (MHRC), Medical Towers Building, 1717 11th Avenue South, Suite 516A, Birmingham, AL 35294-4410, USA
6Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd., Birmingham, AL 35294-0022, USA

Received 27 June 2013; Accepted 14 August 2013

Academic Editors: J. Mocco, C. White, and C. Zweifel

Copyright © 2013 Alexander J. George et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Koton, N. M. Bornstein, R. Tsabari, and D. Tanne, “Derivation and validation of the Prolonged Length of Stay score in acute stroke patients,” Neurology, vol. 74, no. 19, pp. 1511–1516, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. S. Kwok, A. Clark, G. A. Ford et al., “Association between prestroke disability and inpatient mortality and length of acute hospital stay after acute stroke,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 726–732, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Elwood, I. Rashbaum, J. Bonder et al., “Length of stay in rehabilitation is associated with admission neurologic deficit and discharge destination,” PM&R, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 147–151, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Spratt, Y. Wang, C. Levi, K. Ng, M. Evans, and J. Fisher, “A prospective study of predictors of prolonged hospital stay and disability after stroke,” Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 665–669, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. Bejot, O. Troisgros, V. Gremeaux et al., “Poststroke disposition and associated factors in a population-based study: the dijon stroke registry,” Stroke, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 2071–2077, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. S. Koton, R. Luengo-Fernandez, Z. Mehta, and P. M. Rothwell, “Independent validation of the prolonged length of stay score,” Neuroepidemiology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 263–266, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. C. Lim, V. Doshi, B. Castasus, J. K. H. Lim, and K. Mamun, “Factors causing delay in discharge of elderly patients in an acute care hospital,” Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. J. Hall, S. Levant, and C. J. DeFrances, “Hospitalization for stroke in U.S. hospitals, 1989–2009,” NCHS Data Brief, no. 95, pp. 1–8, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. J. E. Siegler, A. K. Boehme, A. M. Dorsey et al., “A comprehensive stroke center registry: advantages, limitations, and lessons learned,” Medical Student Research Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 21–29, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. E. Siegler, A. K. Boehme, A. D. Kumar, M. A. Gillette, K. C. Albright, and S. Martin-Schild, “What change in the national institutes of health stroke scale should define neurologic deterioration in acute ischemic stroke?” Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 675–682, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. Rankin, “Cerebral vascular accidents in patients over the age of 60. II. Prognosis,” Scottish Medical Journal, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 200–215, 1957. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. C. van Swieten, P. J. Koudstaal, M. C. Visser, H. J. A. Schouten, and J. van Gijn, “Interobserver agreement for the assessment of handicap in stroke patients,” Stroke, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 604–607, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Bender and S. Lange, “Adjusting for multiple testing—when and how?” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 343–349, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H.-C. Koennecke, W. Belz, D. Berfelde et al., “Factors influencing in-hospital mortality and morbidity in patients treated on a stroke unit,” Neurology, vol. 77, no. 10, pp. 965–972, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. N. L. Ifejika-Jones, H. Peng, E. A. Noser, G. E. Francisco, and J. C. Grotta, “Hospital-acquired symptomatic urinary tract infection in patients admitted to an academic stroke center affects discharge disposition,” PM&R, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 9–15, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  16. A. E. Hassan, S. A. Chaudhry, H. Zacharatos et al., “Increased rate of aspiration pneumonia and poor discharge outcome among acute ischemic stroke patients following intubation for endovascular treatment,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 246–250, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Bakke and S. E. Vollset, “Risk factors for bacteriuria and clinical urinary tract infection in patients treated with clean intermittent catheterization,” Journal of Urology, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 527–531, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. R. Yilmaz, M. A. Cevik, F. S. Erdinc, S. Ucler, and N. Tulek, “The risk factors for infections acquired by cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarct patients in a neurology intensive care unit in Turkey,” Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 60, no. 2-3, pp. 87–91, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. U. Walter, R. Knoblich, V. Steinhagen, M. Donat, R. Benecke, and A. Kloth, “Predictors of pneumonia in acute stroke patients admitted to a neurological intensive care unit,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 254, no. 10, pp. 1323–1329, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. X. Zhang, F. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Ge, “Risk factors for developing pneumonia in patients with diabetes mellitus following acute ischaemic stroke,” Journal of International Medical Research, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1860–1865, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Al Mohajer and R. O. Darouiche, “Prevention and treatment of urinary catheter-associated infections,” Current Infectious Disease Reports, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 116–123, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  22. P.-O. Lang, D. Zekry, J.-P. Michel et al., “Early markers of prolonged hospital stay in demented inpatients: a multicentre and prospective study,” Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 141–147, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. Bejot, C. Aboa-Eboule, and M. Giroud, “Validation of the prolonged length of stay score in the dijon stroke registry,” Neuroepidemiology, vol. 39, no. 3-4, p. 176, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. D. K. Miu and J. C. Yeung, “Incidence of post-stroke delirium and 1-year outcome,” Geriatrics & Gerontology International, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 123–129, 2013. View at Google Scholar