Table of Contents
ISRN Pain
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 340167, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/340167
Research Article

Distribution of Spinal Sensitization Evoked by Inflammatory Pain Using Local Spinal Cord Glucose Utilization Combined with 3H-Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate Binding in Rats

1Division of Neurosciences and Department of Laboratory Sciences, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505, Japan
22nd Department of Anatomy, Sapporo Medical University, 17-Nishi Minami-1, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556, Japan
3Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Kyushu Dental University, 3-1-6 Manazuru, Kokura, Kita-kyusyu 803-0001, Japan
4Department of Anesthesiology, Pusan National University, 9 Bugok 3-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-757, Republic of Korea

Received 29 September 2013; Accepted 10 November 2013

Academic Editors: V. De Novellis, J. Ferreira, and Y.-R. Wen

Copyright © 2013 Yasuda Seiko et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. L. Yaksh, X.-Y. Hua, I. Kalcheva, N. Nozaki-Taguchi, and M. Marsala, “The spinal biology in humans and animals of pain states generated by persistent small afferent input,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 14, pp. 7680–7686, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. J. Woolf and M. W. Salter, “Neuronal plasticity: increasing the gain in pain,” Science, vol. 288, no. 5472, pp. 1765–1768, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. I. Svensson, M. Marsala, A. Westerlund et al., “Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in spinal microglia is a critical link in inflammation-induced spinal pain processing,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 1534–1544, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Zhuo, “Neuronal mechanism for neuropathic pain,” Molecular Pain, vol. 3, article 14, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Merighi, C. Salio, A. Ghirri et al., “BDNF as a pain modulator,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 297–317, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Z.-Y. Zhuang, P. Gerner, C. J. Woolf, and R.-R. Ji, “ERK is sequentially activated in neurons, microglia, and astrocytes by spinal nerve ligation and contributes to mechanical allodynia in this neuropathic pain model,” Pain, vol. 114, no. 1-2, pp. 149–159, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Wheeler-Aceto, F. Porreca, and A. Cowan, “The rat paw formalin test: comparison of noxious agents,” Pain, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 229–238, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. B. Malmberg and T. L. Yaksh, “The effect of morphine on formalin-evoked behaviour and spinal release of excitatory amino acids and prostaglandin E2 using microdialysis in conscious rats,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 114, no. 5, pp. 1069–1075, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. R. Skilling, D. H. Smullin, A. J. Beitz, and A. A. Larson, “Extracellular amino acid concentrations in the dorsal spinal cord of freely moving rats following veratridine and nociceptive stimulation,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 127–132, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. O. Nakanishi, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Imamura, “Modulation of formalin-evoked hyperalgesia by intrathecal N-type Ca channel and protein kinase C inhibitor in the rat,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 191–197, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Z. Wajima, X.-Y. Hua, and T. L. Yaksh, “Inhibition of spinal protein kinase C blocks substance P-mediated hyperalgesia,” Brain Research, vol. 877, no. 2, pp. 314–321, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. J. Coderre, “Contribution of protein kinase C to central sensitization and persistent pain following tissue injury,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 181–184, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Sokoloff, M. Reivich, and C. Kennedy, “The [14C]deoxyglucose method for the measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization: theory, procedure, and normal values in the conscious and anesthetized albino rat,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 897–916, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. F. Worley, J. M. Baraban, E. B. De Souza, and S. H. Snyder, “Mapping second messenger systems in the brain: differential localizations of adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 4053–4057, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R.-R. Ji and M. R. Suter, “p38 MAPK, microglial signaling, and neuropathic pain,” Molecular Pain, vol. 3, article 33, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Yamamoto, K. Kishishita, M. Yoshida et al., “Activation of different signals identified with glia cells contribute to the progression of hyperalgesia,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 33, pp. 167–174, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  17. T. Ishikawa, O. Nakanishi, N. Funatsu, and H.-I. Kameyama, “Nerve growth factor inducer, 4-methyl catechol, potentiates central sensitization associated with acceleration of spinal glutamate release after mustard oil paw injection in rats,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 587–596, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. A. Porro, M. Cavazuti, A. Galetti, L. Sassatelli, and G. C. Barbier, “Functional activity mapping of the rat spinal cord during formalin-induced noxious stimulation,” Neuroscience, vol. 41, no. 2-3, pp. 655–665, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Kuroda, T. Sakabe, K. Nakakimura et al., “Epidural bupivacaine suppresses local glucose utilization in the spinal cord and brain of rats,” Anesthesiology, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 944–950, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. C. Coghill, D. D. Price, R. L. Hayes, and D. J. Mayer, “Spatial distribution of nociceptive processing in the rat spinal cord,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 133–140, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. B. Malmberg and T. L. Yaksh, “Hyperalgesia mediated by spinal glutamate or substance P receptor blocked by spinal cyclooxygenase inhibition,” Science, vol. 257, no. 5074, pp. 1276–1279, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Yamamoto, O. Nakanishi, T. Matsui et al., “Intrathecal adenosine A1 receptor agonist attenuates hyperalgesia without inhibiting spinal glutamate release in the rat,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 175–185, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Mao, D. D. Price, D. J. Mayer, and R. L. Hayes, “Pain-related increases in spinal cord membrane-bound protein kinase C following peripheral nerve injury,” Brain Research, vol. 588, no. 1, pp. 144–149, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus