Table of Contents
ISRN Biomaterials
Volume 2013, Article ID 347318, 11 pages
Research Article

Amelogenin Peptide Extract Increases Differentiation and Angiogenic and Local Factor Production and Inhibits Apoptosis in Human Osteoblasts

1School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601 West Main Street, Suite 331, Richmond, VA 23284-3068, USA
2Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510 DF, Mexico
3Institut Straumann AG, Nauenstrasse, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
4Department of Periodontics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA

Received 20 May 2013; Accepted 18 June 2013

Academic Editors: W.-C. Chen, S. Lamponi, and V. Larreta-Garde

Copyright © 2013 Rene Olivares-Navarrete et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Enamel matrix derivative (EMD), a decellularized porcine extracellular matrix (ECM), is used clinically in periodontal tissue regeneration. Amelogenin, EMD’s principal component, spontaneously assembles into nanospheres in vivo, forming an ECM complex that releases proteolytically cleaved peptides. However, the role of amelogenin or amelogenin peptides in mediating osteoblast response to EMD is not clear. Human MG63 osteoblast-like cells or normal human osteoblasts were treated with recombinant human amelogenin or a 5 kDa tyrosine-rich amelogenin peptide (TRAP) isolated from EMD and the effect on osteogenesis, local factor production, and apoptosis assessed. Treated MG63 cells increased alkaline phosphatase specific activity and levels of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, prostaglandin E2, and active/latent TGF-β1, an effect sensitive to the effector and concentration. Primary osteoblasts exhibited similar, but less robust, effects. TRAP-rich 5 kDa peptides yielded more mineralization than rhAmelogenin in osteoblasts in vitro. Both amelogenin and 5 kDa peptides protected MG63s from chelerythrine-induced apoptosis. The data suggest that the 5 kDa TRAP-rich sequence is an active amelogenin peptide that regulates osteoblast differentiation and local factor production and prevents osteoblast apoptosis.