Table of Contents
ISRN Neurology
Volume 2013, Article ID 374890, 6 pages
Research Article

Prevalence and Pattern of Neurocognitive Impairment in Nigerians with Stages 3 to 5 Chronic Kidney Disease

1Internal Medicine Department, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar 540242, Nigeria
2Medicine Department, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State 200001, Nigeria
3Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Delta State 320241, Nigeria

Received 13 May 2013; Accepted 6 June 2013

Academic Editors: T. Müller, Y. Ohyagi, S. Weis, and M. Yoshiyama

Copyright © 2013 U. E. Williams et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Cognitive impairment with its negative effect on quality of life has been reported in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The paucity of the literature on cognitive impairment in Africans with CKD prompted this study. Objectives. To determine the frequency and pattern of cognitive impairment in patients with stages 3 to 5 CKD. Methods. We studied 79 consecutive consenting adults with a National Kidney Foundation (NKF) stage 3 to 5 CKD based on their estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. The controls consisted of healthy demographically matched subjects. Community screening instrument for dementia (CSI’D), trail making test A (TMTA), and trail making test B (TMTB) were used for cognitive assessment. Results. More CKD patients had cognitive impairment compared with controls using CSI’D (51.9% versus 2.5%, ); TMTA (53.2% versus 0%, ); and TMTB (40% versus 0%, ). The odds of having cognitive impairment increased in the presence of CKD when assessed using CSI’D (OR = 2.026; CI = 1.607–2.555); TMTA (OR = 3.13; CI = 2.40–4.09) and TMTB (OR = 3.22; CI = 2.42–4.25). CKD patients performed poorer on tests of executive function TMTA ( ) and TMTB ( ) while CSI’D showed significantly lower scores on multiple cognitive domains. Conclusions. Significant cognitive impairment in multiple domains exists among Nigerians with CKD.