International Scholarly Research Notices / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Causes of Variation Orders in Road Construction Projects in Sri Lanka

Table 1

Comparison of ranks of each analysis.

Variation order causeNumber of occurrencePercentage variationQuestionnaireLiterature review

Poor estimation 131
Poor investigation 214
Unforeseen site conditions 3428
Change in design by consultant/design changes 45115
Additional preliminaries due to time extension5224
Client-initiated variations61051
Other organizations71320
Errors and omissions in design811123
Inadequate scope of work for contractor 91410
Inadequate planning1012157
Local residents11917
Substitution of materials or procedures1215282
Shortage of materials13619
Conflicts between contract documents147306
Technology change1583313
Safety considerations16183212
Unavailability of skills (shortage of skilled manpower)17162916
Defective workmanship18212618
Unrealistic contract durations imposed by client19228
Lack of contractor/subcontractor experience202014
Lack of communication between client, consultant, and contractor2119257
Change in economic conditions/government regulations2217919
Political pressure23233
Owner’s financial problems54
The objective of the project is not well defined 1014
The scope of work for the contractor is not well defined 79
Value engineering 3112
Contractor’s desire to improve his financial situation 1810
The contractor's financial difficulties2311
Weather conditions 1317
Natural disasters6
Delay in approval16
Consultant's lack of judgment and experience21
Workmanship or material not meeting requirement of specifications2215
The required tools and equipment are not available2718

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