Table of Contents
ISRN Hypertension
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 390109, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/390109
Research Article

Racial Disparity in the Associations of Microalbuminuria and Macroalbuminuria with Odds of Hypertension: Results from the NHANES Study in the United States

1Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology at East Tennessee State University, 149H Lamb Hall, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
2Institute for Quantitative Biology at East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
3Department of Mathematics and Statistics at East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
4Center on Patient Safety, Division of Health Affairs, Department of Family Medicine & Rural Health, College of Medicine at the Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
5Department of Family Medicine & Rural Health, College of Medicine at the Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA

Received 23 October 2013; Accepted 14 November 2013

Academic Editors: Y. Iwashima and B. Waeber

Copyright © 2013 Xuefeng Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Limited information is available on whether the associations of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria with the odds of hypertension differ among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics. Methods. Cross-sectional data of 24,949 participants aged ≥18 years were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2008. Odds ratios of hypertension for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were estimated by conducting weighted multiple logistic regression models. Results. After adjustment for extensive confounding factors, microalbuminuria is 1.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.17, 1.80]), 2.07 (95% CI [1.52, 2.83]) and 2.81 (95% CI [2.06, 3.84]) times more likely to be associated with hypertension, and macroalbuminuria is 4.08 (95% CI [1.98, 8.38]), 8.62 (95% CI [3.84, 19.35]), and 4.43 (95% CI [2.13, 9.21]) times in non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics, respectively. The odds of hypertension for microalbuminuria (versus normalbuminuria) were 52% higher in non-Hispanic Blacks and 98% higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic Whites; the odds of hypertension for macroalbuminuria (versus normalbuminuria) did not differ among racial groups. Conclusion. Racial differences in the relation between microalbuminuria and hypertension are prevalent among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics. More screening efforts should be encouraged in normotensive non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics with microalbuminuria.