Table of Contents
ISRN Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 407452, 5 pages
Clinical Study

Diagnostic Value of the Combined Measurement of Serum Hcy, Serum Cys C, and Urinary Microalbumin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Early Complicating Diabetic Nephropathy

1Department of Clinical Medicine, Taishan Medical College, Tai’an, China
2Department of Clinical Medicine, Shandong University School of Medicine, Ji’nan, China
3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Ji’nan 250012, China
4Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Third People’s Hospital, Ji’nan, China
5Department of Laboratory Medicine, Ji’nan Iron and Steel Group Corporation General Hospital, Ji’nan, China

Received 13 July 2013; Accepted 21 August 2013

Academic Editors: E. Hajduch and C. G. Scanes

Copyright © 2013 Tengkai Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage kidney disease, and therefore early diagnosis and intervention may help reverse renal damage. One hundred and sixty-eight patients with T2DM and 56 healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled at Shandong University Qilu Hospital between April 2010 and October 2012. All subjects underwent blood sampling for sera homocysteine (Hcy) and cystatin C (Cys C) assays and a urine microalbumin test. The patients were divided into three groups according to the urine microalbumin excretion rate (UMAER): the simple DM group (SDM group, ), the early-stage DN group (EDN group, ), and the clinical DN and renal failure group (CDN group, ). Correlation analysis was performed to examine the association between sera Hcy and Cys C levels with UMAER. Our findings showed that sera Hcy level, Cys C level, and UMAER increased significantly in the SDM group ( , ), the EDN group ( ), and the CDN group ( ) as compared with the control group. These three biochemical markers also increased significantly with DN progression ( ). Correlation analysis showed that sera Hcy and Cys C levels were positively correlated with UMAER ( , ; , ). In conclusion, our results showed that sera Hcy and Cys C levels increased consistently with the development and progression of DN as indicated by UMAER. Sera Hcy and Cys C are sensitive biomarkers for the detection of early-stage DN and monitoring its progression.