Table of Contents
ISRN Civil Engineering
Volume 2013, Article ID 408961, 8 pages
Research Article

Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Deformations Computational Assessment during Tohoku Earthquake

1Dipartimento Economia e Tecnologia, Università di San Marino, Via Salita alla Rocca 44, 47890 San Marino, San Marino
2Dipartimento Ingegneria “Enzo Ferrari”, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena, Italy

Received 11 June 2013; Accepted 3 July 2013

Academic Editors: F. Hernández-Olivares and B. Uy

Copyright © 2013 Davide Forcellini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading during Tohoku earthquake resulted in significant damage, and disruption of functionality for structures and life. The paper aims at reproducing this on-site evidence presenting the state of the art about the most credited qualitative approach and comparing these methods with numerical computation. In this regard, finite element (FE) simulations are increasingly providing a versatile environment in order to assess economical and effective damage. In the study, several systematic three-dimensional FE computations have been conducted to numerically evaluate the effects in terms of liquefaction-induced lateral deformations. The analysis is performed in correspondence with Urayasu City, where the registered liquefaction consequences on residential buildings were wide if compared with the ordinary seismic shake. This study can be used both for post-earthquake evaluations and for pre-earthquake vulnerability predictions.