Table of Contents
ISRN Pediatrics
Volume 2013, Article ID 459160, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/459160
Review Article

Vitamin D Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Childhood Pneumonia: A Systematic Review

1Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Bhubaneswar 751019, India
2Department of Pediatrics, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh 160012, India
3Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, SCB Medical College, Cuttack 753007, India

Received 25 October 2013; Accepted 4 December 2013

Academic Editors: R. Hentschel, O. Mishra, and G. V. Zuccotti

Copyright © 2013 Rashmi Ranjan Das et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Studies have found an increased incidence of vitamin D deficiency in children with pneumonia; however, there is no conclusive data regarding the direct effect of vitamin D supplementation in acute pneumonia. Methods. A comprehensive search was performed of the major electronic databases till September 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatment with vitamin D3 versus placebo in children ≤5 years old with pneumonia were included. Results. Out of 32 full text articles, 2 RCTs including 653 children were eligible for inclusion. One trial used a single 100,000 unit of oral vitamin D3 at the onset of pneumonia. There was no significant difference in the mean (±SD) number of days to recovery between the vitamin D3 and placebo arms ( ). Another trial used oral vitamin D3 (1000 IU for <1 year and 2000 IU for >1 year) for 5 days in children with severe pneumonia. Median duration of resolution of severe pneumonia was similar in the two groups (intervention, 72 hours; placebo, 64 hours). Duration of hospitalization and time to resolution of tachypnea, chest retractions, and inability to feed were also comparable between the two groups. Conclusions. Oral vitamin D supplementation does not help children under-five with acute pneumonia.