Table 4: Cross-sectional effects of calcium and vitamin D deficiency osteomalacia on chemical composition, material properties, in vivo BMD, and morphology in bone specimen at .

Control ( )CaD(−) ( )

4th lumbar vertebra
Bone wet weight (mg)b5941755016[a]
Bone dry weight (mg)b3501231812[a]
Organic matter (mg)b14371335
Calcium (mg)b128.74.1125.12.9
Phosphorus (mg)b59.
Fat (mg)c,d8.
Young’s modulus (MPa)19521451793150
Breaking load (N)11188097372
Ultimate stress (MPa)25.31.822.01.6
2nd lumbar vertebra
BMDe (mg/cm3)447.520.9404.517.2
BV/TV (%)
BMD/(BV/TV)f (g/mL)
Tb.Wi (µm)121.610.7106.47.1
Tb.Sp (µm)245.426.0242.515.0
Ob.S/BS (%)
N.Oc/BS (

Mean values and standard error of the mean. The chemical composition and material properties were determined on the same cylindrical specimen. The 2nd lumbar vertebrae were analysed morphologically ( ). BV/TV: bone volume/tissue volume; BMD: bone mineral density; Tb.Wi: trabecular width; Tb.Sp: trabecular separation; Ob.S/BS: osteoblast surface/bone surface; N.Oc/BS: number of osteoclasts/bone surface. None of the differences reached statistical significance, [a] . bmg/cylindrical sample; cmg/100 mg bone wet weight; din the last breast vertebra; ein vivo in L1–L3; findicates mineralisation of bone tissue.