Table of Contents
ISRN Stroke
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 467398, 7 pages
Research Article

Predictors of Emotional Distress and Wellbeing 2–5 Years After Stroke

1Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Bjørnemyrveien 11, 1450 Nesoddtangen, Norway
2Rehabiliation Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Per Dubbsgatan 14, 3rd Floor, 413 45 Goteborg, Sweden

Received 11 January 2013; Accepted 6 February 2013

Academic Editors: R. P. Kessels and D. Qu

Copyright © 2013 H. Bergersen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. To identify predictors of emotional distress and psychological wellbeing in stroke survivors 2–5 years after discharge from comprehensive rehabilitation. Material and Methods. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), and questions regarding life situations were mailed to former patients. Multiple regression analyses were performed. Results. The responses from 68 participants (37% women), of an average age of 58 years old, were used. Emotional distress (HADS > 10) was identified in 41%. Well-being (GHQ-30 < 6) was identified in 46%. Not surprisingly, there was a strongly negative association between well-being (GHQ-30 < 6) and emotional distress (HADS > 10) at follow up. Dependency in toileting during rehabilitation predicted emotional distress 2–5 years later. Finally, well-being at followup was predicted by age > 65 years, independent mobility, perceiving proxies as supportive, and being in employment. Conclusions. Dependence in the activities of daily living 3–6 months after-injury predicted emotional distress 2–5 years after-stroke. Being over 65 years, having an occupation, proxy support and being less dependent all predicted well-being. Emotional distress and well-being were clearly negatively associated. Gender, education, marital status, and type of stroke were not associated with the outcome measures.