Table of Contents
ISRN Cardiology
Volume 2013, Article ID 478597, 8 pages
Review Article

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) and Angiotensin-Receptor Blockers (ARBs) in Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Meta-Analysis of 10 Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trials

1Consultant Cardiologist, HT Ong Heart Clinic, 251C Burma Road, Penang 10350, Malaysia
2Consultant Nephrologist and Head, Department of Medicine and Clinical Research Centre, Penang Hospital, Penang 10990, Malaysia
3Clinical Epidemiologist, Professor and Head of Paediatrics, Penang Medical College, Penang 10450, Malaysia

Received 11 June 2013; Accepted 2 September 2013

Academic Editors: M. Abdelnoor, A. Bobik, J. Morais, A. Politi, and A. Szekely

Copyright © 2013 Hean Teik Ong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Context. Whether angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) are useful in high risk patients without heart failure is unclear. We perform a meta-analysis of prospective randomized placebo-controlled ACEI or ARB trials studying patients with a combination of risk factors to assess treatment impact on all cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Method. A PubMed search was made for placebo-controlled trials recruiting at least 1,200 high risk patients randomized to either ACEI or ARB, with follow-up of at least 2 years. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5 program and Mantel-Haenszel analysis was done with a fixed effects model. Results. Ten trials recruiting 77,633 patients were reviewed. All cause mortality was significantly reduced by ACEI (RR 0.89; ), but not by ARB treatment (RR 1.00; ). Cardiovascular mortality and nonfatal MI were also reduced in the ACEI trials but not with ARB therapy. Stroke was significantly reduced in the ACEI trials (RR 0.75; ) and more modestly reduced in the ARB trials (RR 0.90; ). Conclusion. ACEI treatment reduced stroke, nonfatal MI, cardiovascular and total mortality in high risk patients, while ARB modestly reduced stroke with no effect on nonfatal MI, cardiovascular and total mortality.