Table of Contents
ISRN Genomics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 491636, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/491636
Research Article

Complete Mitogenomes of Euploea mulciber (Nymphalidae: Danainae) and Libythea celtis (Nymphalidae: Libytheinae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications

1Laboratory of Molecular Evolution and Biodiversity, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000, China
2State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China

Received 27 November 2012; Accepted 13 December 2012

Academic Editors: B. Antonio and S. N. Shchelkunov

Copyright © 2013 Jiasheng Hao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the two butterfly species Euploea mulciber (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae) and Libythea celtis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Libytheinae) were determined in this study, comprising 15,166 bp and 15,164 bp, respectively. The orientation and the gene order of the two mitogenomes are identical to those of most of the other lepidopteran species. All protein-coding genes of Euploea mulciber and Libythea celtis mitogenomes start with a typical ATN codon with the exception of COI gene which uses CGA as its initial codon. All tRNA genes possess the typical cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNASer (AGN), which has a simple loop with the absence of the DHU stem. There are short microsatellite-like repeat regions, but no conspicuous macrorepeats scattered throughout the A + T-rich regions. Phylogenetic analysis among the available butterfly species suggests that Libythea celtis (Libytheinae) is closely related to Calinaga davidis (Calinaginae), indicating that the subfamily Libytheinae may not represent a basal lineage of the Nymphalidae as previously suggested, and that Euploea mulciber stands at the base of the nymphalid tree as a sister to all other nymphalids.