Table of Contents
ISRN Inflammation
Volume 2013, Article ID 496208, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/496208
Research Article

Delayed Asthmatic Response to Allergen Challenge and Cytokines Released by Nonspecifically Stimulated Blood Cells

Allergy Research Foundation, Effenseweg 42, 4838 BB Breda, The Netherlands

Received 9 October 2012; Accepted 3 December 2012

Academic Editors: A. El-Shazly, D. R. Getts, J. Meseguer, and M. Reale

Copyright © 2013 Zdenek Pelikan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Christodoulopoulos, M. K. Tulic, M. Kontolemas, and Q. Hamid, “Immunopathology of allergic airway inflammation,” in Middletons’s Allergy, Principles &Practice, N. F. Adkinson, J. W. Yunginger, W. W. Busse, B. S. Bochner, S. T. Holgate, and F. E. R. Simons, Eds., pp. 501–514, Mosby, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 6th edition, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. T. Holgate, R. F. Lemanske, O. ’Byrne PM, and S. Kukumanu, “Asthma pathogenesis,” in Middleton’s Allergy, Principles and Practice, N. F. Adkinson, B. S. Bochner, W. W. Busse et al., Eds., pp. 893–919, Mosby-Elsevier, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 7th edition, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  3. S. P. Peters, “Heterogeneity in the pathology and treatment of asthma,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 49–54, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. H. Green, C. E. Brightling, and P. Bradding, “The reclassification of asthma based on subphenotypes,” Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. K. Sheth and R. F. Lemanske, “The early and late asthmatic response to allergen challenge,” in Asthma and Rhinitis, W. W. Busse and S. T. Holgate, Eds., pp. 946–960, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  6. L. Borish and L. J. Rosenwasser, “Cytokines in allergic inflammation,” in Middleton’s Allergy, Principlea and Practice, N. F. Adkinson, B. S. Bochner, W. W. Busse, S. T. Holgate, R. F. Lemanske, and F. E. Simons, Eds., pp. 165–179, Mosby-Elsevier, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 7th edition, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  7. A. M. Bentley, A. B. Kay, and S. R. Durham, “Human late asthmatic responses,” in Allergy and Allergic Diseases, A. B. Kay, Ed., pp. 1113–1130, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  8. N. N. Jarjour, W. J. Calhoun, E. A. B. Kelly, G. J. Gleich, L. B. Schwartz, and W. W. Busse, “The immediate and late allergic response to segmental bronchopulmonary provocation in asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 155, no. 5, pp. 1515–1521, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Y. Liu, S. K. Mathur, J. B. Sedgwick, N. N. Jarjour, W. W. Busse, and E. A. B. Kelly, “Human airway and peripheral blood eosinophils enhance Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion,” Allergy, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 589–597, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Z. Pelikan, M. Pelikan, M. Kruis, and M. P. F. Berger, “The immediate asthmatic response to allergen challenge,” Annals of Allergy, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 252–260, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Z. Pelikan and M. Pelikan-Filipek, “The late asthmatic response to allergen challenge—part I,” Annals of Allergy, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 414–420, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. A. Lee, E. W. Gelfand, and J. J. Lee, “Pulmonary T cells and eosinophils: coconspirators or independent triggers of allergic respiratory pathology?” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 945–957, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. K. Wong, C. Y. Ho, F. W. S. Ko et al., “Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IL-6, IL-18 and IL-12) and Th cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) in patients with allergic asthma,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 177–183, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Shirai, K. Suzuki, N. Inui, T. Suda, K. Chida, and H. Nakamura, “Th1/Th2 profile in peripheral blood in atopic cough and atopic asthma,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 84–89, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. C. Moore, J. D. Hasday, S. S. Meltzer, P. L. Wisnewski, B. White, and E. R. Bleecker, “Subjects with mild and moderate asthma respond to segmental allergen challenge with similar, reproducible, allergen-specific inflammation,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 908–914, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Hansen, G. Berry, R. H. DeKruyff, and D. T. Umetsu, “Allergen-specific Th 1 cells fail to counterbalance Th2 cell-induced airway hyperreactivity but cause severe airway inflammation,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 103, pp. 175–183, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  17. J. M. Smart and A. S. Kemp, “Increased Th1 and Th2 allergen-induced cytokine responses in children with atopic disease,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 796–802, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Matsumoto, G. M. Gauvreau, T. Rerecich, R. M. Watson, L. J. Wood, and P. M. O'Byrne, “Il-10 production in circulating T cells differs between allergen-induced isolated early and dual asthmatic responders,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 281–286, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Z. Pelikan, M. Pelikan-Filipek, and J. Oers van, “The early asthmatic response to allergen challenge (EAR) and its pharmacologic modulation,” Allergy, vol. 56, supplement 68, abstarct 66, p. 24, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  20. Z. Pelikan, “The effects of various inhaled drugs on the late asthmatic response (LAR) to the bronchial challenge with allergens,” Allergy, vol. 56, supplement 68, p. 25, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Yoshida, R. M. Watson, T. Rerecich, and P. M. O'Byrne, “Different profiles of T-cell IFN-γ and IL-12 in allergen-induced early and dual responders with asthma,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 115, no. 5, pp. 1004–1009, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. Gosset, A. Tsicopoulos, B. Wallaert et al., “Increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 by alveolar macrophages consecutive to the development of the late asthmatic reaction,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 561–571, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Gratziou, M. Carroll, S. Montefort, L. Teran, P. H. Howarth, and S. T. Holgate, “Inflammatory and T-cell profile of asthmatic airways 6 hours after local allergen provocation,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 515–520, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Bettiol, J. Sele, M. Henket et al., “Cytokine production from sputum cells after allergenic challenge in IgE-mediated asthma,” Allergy, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 1145–1150, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. J. Bodey, A. E. Semper, A. E. Redington et al., “Cytokine profiles of BAL T cells and T-cell clones obtained from human asthmatic airways after local allergen challenge,” Allergy, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 1083–1093, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Majori, M. Corradi, A. Caminati, G. Cacciani, S. Bertacco, and A. Pesci, “Predominant TH1 cytokine pattern in peripheral blood from subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 458–462, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Liu, N. N. Jarjour, W. W. Busse, and E. A. B. Kelly, “Enhanced generation of helper T type 1 and 2 chemokines in allergen-induced asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 169, no. 10, pp. 1118–1124, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. A. Becky Kelly, R. R. Rodriguez, W. W. Busse, and N. N. Jarjour, “The effect of segmental bronchoprovocation with allergen on airway lymphocyte function,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 156, no. 5, pp. 1421–1428, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. C. Virchow, C. Walker, D. Hafner et al., “T cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after segmental allergen provocation in atopic asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 960–968, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. V. Batra, A. I. Musani, A. T. Hastie et al., “Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 after segmental allergen challenge and their effects on α-smooth muscle actin and collagen III synthesis by primary human lung fibroblasts,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 437–444, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. Krug, J. Madden, A. E. Redington et al., “T-cell cytokine profile evaluated at the single cell level in BAL and blood in allergic asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 319–326, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. P. Hallsworth, C. P. C. Soh, H. J. Lane, E. P. Arm, and M. H. Lee, “Selective enhancement of GM-CSF,TNF-α,lL-1β andIL-8 production by monocytes and macrophages of asthmatic subjects,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1096–1102, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Terashima, K. Amakawa, A. Matsumaru, S. Van Eeden, J. C. Hogg, and K. Yamaguchi, “BAL induces an increase in peripheral blood neutrophils and cytokine levels in healthy volunteers and patients with pneumonia,” Chest, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 1724–1729, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. J. Till, S. R. Durham, K. Rajakulasingam et al., “Allergen-induced proliferation and interleukin-5 production by bronchoalveolar lavage and blood T cells after segmental allergen challenge,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. 404–411, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. V. Brown, T. J. Warke, M. D. Shields, and M. Ennis, “T cell cytokine profiles in childhood asthma,” Thorax, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 311–316, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. T. Umetsu, O. Akbari, and R. H. DeKruyff, “Regulatory T cells control the development of allergic disease and asthma,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 480–487, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. O. Magnan, L. G. Mély, C. A. Camilla et al., “Assessment of the Th1/Th2 paradigm in whole blood in atopy and asthma: increased IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells in asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 161, no. 6, pp. 1790–1796, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. H. Kariyawasam, M. Aizen, J. Barkans, D. S. Robinson, and A. B. Kay, “Remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness but not cellular inflammation persist after allergen challenge in asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 175, no. 9, pp. 896–904, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. T. Shirai, N. Inui, T. Suda, and K. Chida, “Correlation between peripheral blood T-cell profiles and airway inflammation in atopic asthma,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 622–626, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Z. Pelikan, M. Pelikan-Filipek, and J. H. Oostenbrink, “Delayed asthmatic response (DYAR), its clinical features and pharmacologic modulation,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 99, no. 1, article 321, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  41. Z. Pelikan, “Delayed-type asthmatic response to bronchial challenge with allergen, I: clinical features,” Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 394–404, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. Melillo, S. Bonini, G. Cocco et al., “EAACI provocation tests with allergens. Report prepared by the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Subcommittee on provocation tests with allergens,” Allergy, vol. 52, no. 35, pp. 1–35, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. J. Houd and C. C. Taylor, Multivariate Analysis of Variance and Repeated Measures, Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 1987.
  44. Z. Pelikan, “Delayed asthmatic response to bronchial challenge with allergen—mediators, eicosanoids, eosinophil and neutrophil constituents in the blood and urine,” Respiration, vol. 82, pp. 225–236, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  45. Z. Pelikan, “Delayed type of asthmatic response to allergen challenge and cytokines in the peripheral blood,” Respiration, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 385–395, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. T. Kawayama, P. M. O'Byrne, R. M. Watson et al., “Effects of inhaled ciclesonide on circulating T-helper type 1/T-helper type 2 cells in atopic asthmatics after allergen challenge,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1417–1424, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. Härtel, N. Adam, T. Strunk, P. Temming, M. Müller-Steinhardt, and C. Schultz, “Cytokine responses correlate differentially with age in infancy and early childhood,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 142, pp. 446–453, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  48. M. Halonen, I. C. Lohman, D. A. Stern et al., “Th1/Th2 patterns and balance in cytokine production in the parents and infants of a large birth cohort,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 182, no. 5, pp. 3285–3293, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus